Nature: acrid, bitter, cool, slightly toxic
Enters: Large Intestine, Small Intestine, Lung
Actions: Transforms phlegm; stops cough, arrests wheezing; dissipates nodules; promotes urination, strongly reduces edema.
• Lung heat with phlegm and congested fluids: coughing, wheezing.
• Scrofula: used both internally and topically (as a wash, paste, or powder).
• Edema in the upper abdomen, face and eyes, and extremities.
• Bacillary dysentery: In one study of 79 cases, oral preparations markedly improved 44 cases and improved 13.
• Esophageal cancer: In one study of 64 cases (using IM injection of a 20% solution of neutral saponins), in terms of their ability to swallow, 10 cases were cured, 18 were markedly improved, 30 were improved. Results were generally noted within five days. The herb had no effect if the patient had previously undergone radiation therapy.