Pu Huang – Cattail / Typha / Bulrush Pollen

Nature: sweet, astringent, neutral

Enters: Liver, Pericardium, Spleen, Heart

Actions: Promotes blood circulation, dispels blood stasis; stops bleeding by astringing; slightly promotes urination.


• Blood stasis pain: chest, abdominal, menstrual , including postpartum abdominal pain. Recently for angina pectoris.
• Bleeding: hemoptysis, hematemesis, hemafecia, hematuria (slightly promotes urination for bloody urine due to heat in the bladder), epistaxis, uterine bleeding, hematochezia, heavy menstrual bleeding, subcutaneous bleeding, external trauma. For dysmenorrhea, often combined with Wu Ling Zhi.
• Can contract the uterus: to stop abnormal uterine bleeding and for severe postpartum abdominal pain.
• Lowers cholesterol.
• Probably decreases thrombin time and increases platelet count.
• Use the herb raw to dispel blood stasis and relieve pain.
• Use the herb toasted / charred to stop bleeding.
• If the herb is to be decocted, it should be placed in a tea bag.
• Can be used externally or internally.
Chen & Chen in Chinese Medical Herbology & Pharmacology: Useful for peptic ulcer. Research shows anti-inflammatory effect; increases intestinal peristalsis, relieves enteritis; raises HDL, lowers total cholesterol (also lowered triglycerides in one study of 30g/day in divided doses; improves flow to coronary arteries;  One study showed relief of eczema and its itching by applying Pu Huang powder to it daily. It’s possible that this herb’s antiplatelet action may cause it to interfere with anticoagulant or antiplatelet medications.
Hong-Yen Hsu (Oriental Materia Medica): Strong anti-tubercular effect; diuretic.

Dose: 4.5-12g

Notes on This Category

• These herbs stop bleeding by any of four actions:
1. Cooling the blood
2. Astringing
3. Dispelling blood stasis
4. Warming the channels
• Herbs in this category are commonly combined with:
A. Herbs that tonify the spleen when bleeding is caused by spleen Qi deficiency.
B. Herbs that clear heat and cool the blood when blooding is caused by heat in the blood.
C. Herbs that promote blood circulation when bleeding results from blood stagnation.
D. Herbs that warm the Yang when bleeding is due to Yang deficiency cold.
• Qi should only be strongly tonified (in cases of bleeding) when heavy bleeding has led to Qi collapse.

Other Herbs to Consider for Stopping Bleeding, When Appropriate (most better when charred):
Bai ji li – Tribulus, Chi shi zhi – Clay (halloysite / kaolinite), Chun gen pi – Ailanthus, Da huang – Rhubarb, Dai zhe shi – Hematite, Dong chong xia cao – Cordyceps, E jiao – Ass hide gelatin, Gan jiang – dry Ginger, Gu sui bu – Drynaria, Guan zhong – Dryopteris (or analogs), Gui ban – Turtle shell, Hai piao xiao – Cuttlefish bone, Han lian cao/Mo han lian – Eclipta, Huang lian – Coptis, Huang qin – Scutellaria, Huang yao zi – Dioscorea bulbifera, Jiang huang – Turmeric, Jiang xiang – Dalbergia, Jing jie – Schizonepeta, Lian xin  – Lotus heart, Lu jiao jiao – Deer antler gelatin, Ma bo – Puffball mushroom, Ming fan – Alum, Mu dan pi – Moutan, Mu zei – Equisetum, Qing hao – Artemisia annua, Ren shen – Ginseng, Sang ye – Morus leaf, Shan zhu yu – Cornus berry, Shi liu pi – Pomegranate rind, Shi wei – Pyrossia, Su mu – Sappan, Wu bei zi – Sumac gall, Wu ling zhi – Flying squirrel feces, Wu mei – Mume, Xu duan – Dipsacus, Xue jie – Dragon’s blood resin, Yin chai hu – Stellaria, Zhi zi – Gardenia, Zhu ru – Bamboo.

Ai Ye – Mugwort leaf – Artemisia argyi or A. vulgaris or A. lavandulaefolia

Nature: bitter, acrid, warm

Enters: Liver, Spleen, Kidney

Actions: Stops bleeding; warms the channels; disperses cold, relieves pain; warms the womb; pacifies the fetus

• Yang deficiency cold: bleeding, including prolonged menstrual bleeding, uterine bleeding.
• Cold and Yang deficiency of the liver and kidneys: cold and pain in the abdomen, irregular menstruation, dysmenorrhea, leukorrhea, restlessness of the fetus, threatened miscarriage, vaginal bleeding.
• Cold in the womb: infertility.
• Compared to Rou gui: both can alleviate abdominal pain due to cold. Ai ye is most effective when the pain is due to damp-cold. Rou gui is most appropriate for abdominal pain due to cold from deficiency where the extremities are cold, as in Yang deficiency or Yin and Yang deficiency. Also, while Ai ye calms a fetus, Rou gui will stimulate it.
• The fresh, crushed herb can be applied to warts. When used several times a day in one study of 12 patients, warts fell off within 3-10 days.
• Antibiotic (in vitro) against such pathogens as staphylococcus, streptococcus, shigella, and salmonella.
• Malaria: large doses given for two days to malaria patients two hours before onset of symptoms showed control of symptoms in 89% of cases, plus negative blood examinations for the parasite in over half of those cases.
• In its raw form, the herb is relatively neutral and may be used for bleeding due to heat patterns (e.g. heat in the blood) when combined appropriately.
• Char the herb to enhance both its warming and hemostatic properties.
Michael & Leslie Tierra: Ashes from moxibustion are even more effective than the unburnt herb to stop bleeding. They can be effectively applied to the feet for non-healing sores from diabetes.
Kenner & Requena: Emmenagogue, slight tonic, stimulates secretion of pituitary gonadotropins (FSH and LH).
• Wood yin, earth yin, metal yin.
• Wood: stimulates bile secretion, increases appetite, facilitates digestion, abortifacient (not without danger)
• Hypotension, syncope, epilepsy, hypo-estrogenic amenorrhea, functional uterine bleeding, menstrual cramps, neurological and psychiatric syndromes which originate with the liver, dyspepsia.

• Earth: antimicrobial, estrogenic and luteotropic.
• Insufficient menses, amenorrhea, insufficiency of corpus luteum due to anemia.
• In Russia, the herb has been used as sedative for convulsions, epilepsy, neurasthenia, dysmenorrhea, labor pain.
• In Japan, the herb is used in mochi for stamina and by new mothers to stop postpartum blood loss, to treat anemia, and to stimulate lactation.
• Amenorrhea from general causes, especially for women with a wood deficiency or metal deficiency constitution.
• Long reputation as a spring tonic.
Yoga of Herbs (Frawley & Lad): Nagadamani: lowers Vata & Kapha; raises Pitta (in excess)
• Bitter, pungent/heating/pungent.
• Emmenagogue, antispasmodic, hemostatic, diaphoretic, anthelmintic, antiseptic.
• Good for Sama Vata conditions (arthritis, nervous conditions with obstructed Vata).
• Strengthens the fetus; opens and purifies the channels (circulatory and nervous), relieves pain; warms the lower abdomen, fortifies the uterus.
• Good for menstrual cramps, headache.
Potter’s Cyclopaedia of Botanical Drugs and Preparations: Emmenagogue, diaphoretic, choleretic, anthelmintic, diuretic, stomachic, orexigenic.
• Amenorrhea, anorexia, dyspepsia.
• Threadworm, roundworm.
Matt Wood: Good for perimenopausal women.
Hong-Yen Hsu (Oriental Materia Medica): Antifungal.
Culpeper: Mugwort is an herb of the planet Venus. “Its tops, leaves, and flowers are full or virtue; they are aromatic, and most safe and excellent in female disorders. For this purpose the flowers and buds should be put into a teapot and boiling water poured over them, and when just cool, be drunk with a little sugar and milk; this may be repeated twice a day, of oftener, as occasions require. It is boiled among other herbs for drawing down the courses, by sitting over it, and for hastening the delivery, and helps to expel the afterbirth, and is good for the obstructions and inflammations of the mother. It breaks the stone and provokes water. The juice made up with myrrh, and put under as a pessary, works the same effects, and so does the root. Made up with hog’s-grease into an ointment, it takes away wens, hard knots and kernels that grow about the neck, more effectually if some daisies be put with it. the herb itself being fresh, or the juice, is a special remedy upon the over-much taking of opium. The drams of the powder of the dried leaves taken in wine, is a speedy and certain help for the sciatica. A decoction made with camomile and agrimony, and the place bathed therewith while it is warm, takes away the pains of the sinews, and the cramp. The moxa, so famous in eastern countries for curing the gout by burning the part affected, is the down which grows upon the under side of this herb.”
PJE: As this plant is so frequently used as a charm, and is held in a measure of superstitious veneration by the people, it is a little difficult to determine just where its remedial use in native therapeutics begins. At the time of the Dragon Festival (fifth day of the fifth moon) the artemisia is hung up to ward off noxious influences. This is done either together with a Taoist charm, in which case it is called Ai Fu, and is hung at the head of the principal room of the house, or together with the Shi Chang Pu at the door; the leaves of the latter being formed in the shape of a sword (called Pu Chien) and placed over the door, while a stalk of the artemisia is hung on each door post. That this was efficacious in at least one instance is attested by the fact that the famous rebel, Huan Chao, gave orders to his soldiers to spare any family that had artemisia hung up at the door. The moxa is employed by buddhist priests in initiating neophytes; three rows of three, four, or five scars each being burned on the crown of the head with this substance. Many also use the moxa on a 3 day-old, burning one or more scars on the face; this being supposed to insure the child’s living through infancy. The places for burning are yintang, St-1, St-2, or St-3, and GV-26. Place artemisia in the shoes to gain strength during long walks or runs. For this purpose, pick it before sunrise saying …Tollam te artemesia, ne lassus sim in via.
A pillow stuffed with mugwort will produce prophetic dreams. When carrying mugwort, you cannot be harmed by poison, wild beasts, or sunstroke. In a building, mugwort prevents elves and ‘evil thynges’ from entering. Bunches of mugwort are used in Japan by the ainus (who are they?) to exorcise spirits of disease who are thought to hate the odor. Mugwort is carried to increase lust and fertility, to prevent backache, and to cure disease and madness.
Dr. Peter Eschwey: With regard to our tendency to forget about the waking world when we’re dreaming and to forget about the dreaming world when awake, mugwort provides the bridge of memory between the two worlds.
Peter Holmes: Asian mugwort (Artemisia argyi) is not the same botanical species as the Western mugwort, which is Artemisia vulgaris. The latter was once confused with the former. Moreover, the two herbs cannot be substituted across the board. With its astringent, decongestant, and relaxant actions, Asian mugwort leaf is used primarily to stop uterine bleeding, relieve pain, disinfect and relieve cold and Qi constraint conditions of the uterus. Western mugwort herb, conversely, mainly stimulates the uterus and generally disinfects. Like most remedies in this subsection, Asian mugwort leaf can be seen to activate the Dai and Yang Wei extra meridians in its blood decongestant, astringent and hemostatic action on the pelvic/uterine area. This herb, moreover has the distinction of entering the Ren channel. This is suggested by its historical use for dysmenorrhea, irregular cycles and infertility, as well as in its use for asthmatic and eczematous conditions. Two strongly anticomplimentary polysaccharides have been recently found in Asian mugwort leaf, providing theoretical support for its immune stimulating and interferon producing activities. The use of this remedy for a range of type I or immediate allergic conditions is today well documented.
Karen Vaughan, 2-24-01: Mugwort, harvested in late October after flowering rather than in Summer as in TCM, is traditionally used for dream pillows in Western herbalism. It is smoked as a euphoriant (for which lesser quality with high stem content is best and the effect is stronger with repeated use). A teaspoon or two is eaten to induce sleep.

Dose: 3-9g

Bai Ji – Bletilla rhizome

Nature: bitter, sweet, astringent, slightly cold

Enters: Lung, Liver, Stomach

Actions: Relieves swelling; promotes tissue regeneration; stops bleeding by astringing.

• Mainly used for bleeding from the Lungs or stomach: hemoptysis, hematemesis, epistaxis.
• Heat and toxicity: carbuncles, cracks on hands and feet; also sores, ulcers, chapped skin. Reduces the swelling of sores, helps speed resolution of ulcers. Especially useful for chronic, non-healing ulcers. For these indications, and for bleeding from traumatic injury, it is usually applied topically.
• Pulmonary tuberculosis: in 60 chronic cases which had not responded to normal therapy, 42 were clinically cured and 13 were significantly improved after taking Bai ji for three months. Also successful in bronchiectasis.
• Useful as a powder for stopping bleeding in surgery.
• Bleeding ulcers, carefully selected cases of gastric or duodenal perforation: Stopped bleeding in all 69 cases of bleeding ulcers in one study. Successful in 23 of 29 cases of perforated ulcers in another study. Contraindicated for patients who (1) do not have a definite diagnosis; (2) have recently eaten; (3) the physical exam reveals marked abdominal distention, reduced bowel sounds, or a painful rectal examination; or (4) are in unstable condition for any reason. Some clinicians feel Bai ji should not be used for perforation for the following reasons: (1) the powdered herb can increase peristalsis and therefore enlarge the perforation; (2) the above, together with an increase in nausea and vomiting, can increase leakage into the abdominal cavity; and (3) because powdered Bai ji is adhesive, it can cause a serious problem if it enters the abdominal cavity.
• Topical, as a sterile ointment: for burns.
MLT: In powder with sesame oil for chapped, bleeding hands and feet, wind/sunburn.
• Not for Lung/stomach bleeding when there are true excess heat signs, external pathogens, or with Lung abscess.
DY: With San qi, the two herbs act to mutually reinforce one another, and together they effectively dispel stasis, stop bleeding, promote granulation and engender muscle (flesh) without producing blood stasis. For such indications as hemoptysis, hematemesis, and bleeding caused by trauma. For internal use, take 3-6g of each herb, powdered, 2-3 times per day. Most bleeding can be stopped within two days. For gastric hemorrhages, it is advised to mix this powder with cool water in order to increase its vasoconstricting mechanism within the stomach.

Dose: 3-15g

Bai Mao Gen – Imperata rhizome – Woolly grass – White grass

Nature: sweet, cold

Enters: Lung, Stomach, Bladder, Large Intestine

Actions: Cools the blood; stops bleeding; clears heat; promotes urination.

• Damp-heat: painful urination, edema, jaundice, urinary difficulty.
• Heat in the blood: hemoptysis, hematuria, hemafecia, epistaxis, uterine bleeding.
• Stomach heat: nausea, thirst.
• Lung heat: wheezing.
• Acute nephritis: found to reduce edema, lower blood pressure, normalize examination of urine, shorten duration of the disease.
Li: Beneficial for prostate cancer.
Weng Weiliang, et. al.:
• Bleeding: bai mao gen could be used to treat nasal bleeding, haematemesis, hematuria and uterine bleeding. It had good effects on skin or mucous petechiae, nasal or gingival bleeding and bleeding in sputum.
• Acute glomerulonephritis, acute edema: bai mao gen 250~500g was decocted with 500~1000ml water for 10 minutes with slow fire after boiling. It had good short-term effect on acute glomerulonephritis.
• Acute or chronic infectious hepatitis: bai mao gen decoction was used to treat 200 cases of acute or chronic infectious hepatitis and had satisfactory effect. 33 cases of acute or chronic infectious hepatitis were treated with bai mao gen, xuan shen, dang gui, ren dong teng, sheng gan cao, sheng huang qi, sheng ma, tu fu ling, 25 cases were markedly effective, 6 effective, and the total effective rate was 94%.
• Upper respiratory tract infections: Qing Wen Tang No. 1 (bai mao gen, da qing ye, sang ye, lu gen, sheng shi gao, gan cao) was used to treat 40 cases of upper respiratory tract infections. It had good effects on fever, cough, nasal discharge, poor appetite, thirst, scanty and yellow urine and dry stools. 85% cases had fever allayed within 2 days.

Dose: 9-24g (to 60g when used alone)

Mao Hua: the flower
• Sweet, cold.
• Cools the blood, stops bleeding.
• Heat in the blood: epistaxis, hematemesis.
• Less effective than Bai mao gen for painful urinary dysfunction.

Ce Bai Ye – Biota leaf – Thuja orientalis – Cacumen platycladi – Leafy twig of Chinese Arborvitae – “Flat Fir Leaves”

Nature: bitter, astringent, slightly cold

Enters: Lung, Liver, Large Intestine, Heart

Actions: Eliminates phlegm; stops coughing; clears Lung heat; cools the blood; stops bleeding; promotes healing of burns.

• Bleeding: hemoptysis, epistaxis, hematemesis, hematuria, hemafecia, uterine bleeding, bleeding gums, bloody dysentery disorders. Mainly for bleeding due to heat in the blood, but, appropriately combined, this herb can be used for cold disorders as well.
• Lung heat: cough, copious phlegm. Especially important in cases of difficult-to-expectorate sputum streaked with blood.
• Topical, as a powder or ointment: psoriasis or early stages of burns over a small to moderate surface area. For psoriasis, the herb can be applied topically and taken as a decoction. It is especially effective for acute conditions.
• Topical decoction for pain.
• Dysentery: powdered Ce bai ye effectively treated 100 of 114 cases of dysentery in one study.
• Hemorrhage due to gastric or duodenal ulcer. One study showed quicker results with Ce bai ye than standard therapy.
• Alopecia: (use tincture) generates new hair, density proportional to frequency of application. Is a 5?-reductase (5?R) inhibitor, decreases DHT. See this and other studies: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/26571086/
• Use the herb raw or charred for bleeding.
Dose: 6-15g

Da Ji – Japanese Thistle – Circinum – “Big Thistle”

Nature: sweet, cool

Enters: Liver, Spleen

Actions: Cools the blood; stops bleeding; reduces swelling; generates flesh at sores.

• Heat in the blood: epistaxis, hematemesis, hematuria, hemafecia, uterine bleeding.
• Especially effective for vomiting or coughing of blood.
• Topical: for carbuncles, sores, swellings.
• Lowers blood pressure (usually 10-20 mm Hg diastolic).

Dose: 4.5-15g

Di Yu – Sanguisorba root – Burnet-bloodwort root

Nature: bitter, sour, slightly cold

Enters: Liver, Stomach, Large Intestine

Actions: Stops bleeding; cools the blood; reduces fire; eliminates toxicity; promotes healing of non-healing skin ulcers; clears heat, generates flesh, reduces oozing.

• Heat in the blood: hemoptysis, hemafecia, hematuria, epistaxis, hematemesis, bleeding hemorrhoids, uterine bleeding, bloody dysenteric disorders.
• Topically (sometimes calcined): burns, sores, ulcers, injuries, eczema. May be powdered and mixed with sesame oil.
• Especially good for bleeding in the lower Jiao due to damp-heat.
• Broad spectrum antimicrobial.
• Reduces seepage, infection rate, mortality, and healing time of burns.
• One study showed significant benefit in eczema (using 30% roasted herb in petroleum jelly).
• Use charred to stop bleeding.
Weng Weiliang, et. al.:
• Primary thrombopenic purpura: Qing Huo Xiao Yu Tang: sheng di, shui niu jiao, bai mao gen, sheng shi gao, 30g each; di yu, dan pi, chi shao, dang gui, 12g each; xian he cao 20g; tu da huang 15g; gan cao 10g. The formula was used to treat primary thrombopenic purpura of Blood Heat type. The other type was treated with another formula. 1 dose every day, water decoction, for 1~3 months. 32 cases were treated, 14 markedly effective, 11 effective, 6 improved and 1 ineffective.
• Nephritis due to purpura: 110 cases of nephritis due to purpura were treated with yu mi xu 30g; bai mao gen, xian he cao, 20g each; zi cao 12g; parched di yu, qian cao, dan pi, 9g each; shi wei, sheng di, huang qi, 15g each; san qi powder 3g (taken with water). 1 dose every day, water decoction. After 30~60 doses, all cases were cured and no recurrence was reported.
• Hemorrhage of the upper digestive tract: Di yu was used in various formulas for the treatment of hemorrhage of the upper digestive tract, and it had good effect.
• Necrotic enteritis: Bai tou weng, bai jiang cao, 15g each; da huang 10g; huai hua 12g; zhi shi, dan shen, bai shao, hou po, 9g each; pu gong ying 25g; di yu, huang lian, huang qin, 6g each; hong hua 3g. 1 dose every day, water decoction. The formula was used to treat 23 cases of necrotic enteritis, 20 were cured and 3 ineffective.
• Dysfunctional uterine bleeding: Chao di yu, shu di, huang qi, dang shen, 30g each; chao bai zhu, dang gui, 15g each; pao jiang, e jiao (melted), 10g each; sheng ma 6g. 1 dose every day, water decoction. After 3~9 doses, all treated 32 cases were cured.
• Skin diseases: Charred di yu powder and vaseline were made into 30% ointment for external application to treat skin diseases such as eczema and ringworm of the feet, etc.. 109 cases were treated, and 47 cured, 50 markedly effective or effective.

Dose: 6-12g

Huai Hua – Huai Hua Mi – Sophora flower bud – Pagoda Tree flower bud

Nature: bitter, slightly cold

Enters: Liver, Large Intestine

Actions: Cools the blood; stops bleeding; clears liver heat.

• Damp-heat: bleeding hemorrhoids, hemafecia, dysentery
• Heat in the blood: many forms of bleeding, especially of the lower body/large intestine; also for coughing blood, epistaxis, uterine bleeding.
• Liver heat: headache, red eyes, hypertension, dizziness.
• Topical: tongue bleeding.
• Lowers blood pressure.
• Use charred to stop bleeding.
• Contains rutin and quercetin (anti-inflammatory, reduce capillary permeability, reduce tension in bronchial and intestinal smooth muscle, relieve intestinal spasms, anti-allergic effects, improve coronary circulation by dilating coronary blood vessels, may protect against development of atherosclerosis, more).
HF: A Sha Chong (kill worms or parasites) herb, important in Gu Zheng (Gu parasites) formulas
Zhaoxue Lu: As we know, most books mention Huai Hua enters Liver, LI intestine with the function to clear heat, cool blood and stop bleeding. It is commonly used for LI wind with hemorrhoid or blood in the stool. For psoriasis, we usually think it belongs to warm febrile disease and related to skin (Lung). So we use the function of Huai Hua which can cool blood and clear heat from Li to clear the skin. There is a clinical report to use Huai Hua 3g bid after meals every day to treat psoriasis. Huai Hua was ground into power after being dry fried into yellow color.

Dose: 6-15g


Huai Jiao: the fruit
• Weaker effect on bleeding than the flower bud, but more effective at draining heat.
• Often used for inflamed hemorrhoids.
• Directs Qi downward (therefore contraindicated in pregnancy).

Dose: 9-15g

Lian Fang Mature – Lotus receptacle – Lotus peduncle

Nature: bitter, astringent, warm

Enters: Liver, Kidney, Spleen

Actions: Dispels blood stasis; stops bleeding; calms the fetus; dispels summer-heat and dampness.

• Uterine bleeding, hematuria.
• Restless fetus, threatened miscarriage.
• Summer-heat with dampness: diarrhea in children.
• Recent use: for cervical cancer and pemphigus.
• Use fresh for summer-heat.
Jin: To promote blood circulation, best prepared with vinegar or wine.

Dose: 3-9g

Ou Jie – Node of Lotus Rhizome

Nature: sweet, astringent, neutral

Enters: Liver, Lung, Stomach

Actions: Stops bleeding by astringing; dispels blood stasis

• Many forms of bleeding, especially heat in the Lungs or stomach: hemoptysis, hematemesis. Also for chronic bleeding when combined appropriately.
• Heat in the blood: prolonged menstruation.
• Can be cooked as a food
• Use raw for bleeding due to heat in the blood (the fresh herb crushed into juice is even better).
• Partially char the herb for bleeding due to cold from deficiency.
• Ping-Qi Kang includes this herb in his headache/migraine formula.
Jin: To promote blood circulation, best prepared with vinegar or wine.
Yoga: Padma, Kamala, Pushkara, more names
• The lotus is India’s most sacred plant, the symbol of spiritual unfoldment. (See also Lian zi, Lian xin, Lian fang, etc.)
• Sweet, astringent/cooling/sweet.
• P, V-; K+ (in excess)
• Nutritive tonic, rejuvenative, aphrodisiac, astringent, hemostatic, nervine.
• Diarrhea, bleeding disorders, menorrhagia, leukorrhea, impotence, spermatorrhea, venereal disease, heart weakness.
• Opens the first chakra (muladhara) – the root center: for first chakra disorders. (PLB: e.g., self-indulgence, self-centeredness, insecurity, instability, rootlessness, ungroundedness, etc.)
• Calms the mind, subdues restless thoughts and dreams.
• The lotus is sacred to Lakshmi, the goddess of prosperity, and brings spiritual and material abundance.

Dose: 9-15g

Qian Cao – Qian Cao Gen – (Red) Madder root – Rubia

Nature: bitter, cold

Enters: Liver, Heart

Actions: Promotes blood circulation, dispels blood stasis; cools the blood; stops bleeding.

• Blood stasis: pain in the flanks, chest, joints in Bi syndrome, trauma.
• Blood stasis: amenorrhea, lochioschesis, early stages of carbuncles.
• Heat in the blood: any form of bleeding, including hematemesis, hemafecia, hematuria, hemoptysis, uterine bleeding, etc.
• Stimulant effect on uteri of post-partum women.
Yoga of Herbs (Frawley & Lad): Manjistha: bitter, sweet/cooling/pungent; reduces Kapha and Pitta, raises Vata
• Alterative, hemostatic, emmenagogue, astringent, diuretic, lithotriptic, antitumor effect.
• Best blood purifier in Ayurveda. Detoxifies the blood, removes obstruction (including in the kidneys and liver).
• Amenorrhea, dysmenorrhea, menorrhagia, menopause, bleeding, kidney, bladder, or gall stones, jaundice, hepatitis, diarrhea, dysentery, trauma, cancer, heart disease, obstinate skin problems, dropsy, rickets, paralysis, herpes.
• For all inflammatory conditions.
• Helps knit broken bones.
• Topical: as a paste for skin discoloration, inflammation, burns, damaged tissue
• Major anti-Pitta herb.
Hsu: Antibacterial, antitussive.

Dose: 6-9g

San Qi – Tian Qi – Panax pseudoginseng or P. notoginseng – “Three Seven”

Nature: sweet, slightly bitter, warm

Enters: Liver, Stomach, Large Intestine

Actions: Stops bleeding; promotes blood circulation, dispels blood stasis, relieves pain, reduces swelling; commonly thought of as a tonic, similar to ren shen.

• Bleeding: any form, internal or external, including hematemesis, epistaxis, hematuria, hemafecia, etc. A particularly important herb because it stops bleeding without causing stasis.
• Traumatic injury: the herb of choice for swelling and pain due to falls, fractures, contusions, sprains.
• Blood stasis: pain, including of the chest, abdomen, joints.
• Yin deficiency heat: bleeding (combine with Yin tonics).
• Coronary heart disease, angina pectoris: may replace nitroglycerin.
• May lower blood pressure.
• May reduce serum lipids, cholesterol.
• Effective for Crohn’s disease.
• The liver seems to play an important role in San qi’s ability to stop bleeding internally, since its effectiveness is lost if the portal vein is ligated. Also shortens thrombin time.
Dr. Wei Li: May be beneficial in obesity for weight loss.
Miachel & Lesley Tierra: For internal or external hemorrhages.
• Powerfully dissolves clots, normalizes circulation.
• Increases coronary artery flow.
Hiener Freuhauf: An important herb in anti-Gu therapy to move Qi (xing Qi) and break accumulation (po ji).
Hong-Yen Hsu (Oriental Materia Medica): Cardiotonic: increases coronary blood flow, decreases oxygen consumption by cardiac muscle, thereby diminishing the load on the heart.
• Lessens lipid and cholesterol levels in the blood.
• Possesses an anti-tumor effect.
• Enhances the immune system.
Sibhuti Dharmananda: Has been successfully employed as an adjunct to radiation therapy of nasal cancer, greatly improving the success of the treatments. Improves immune system functions and promotes blood circulation.
Dui Yao (Sionneau & Flaws):  With Bai ji, the two herbs act to mutually reinforce one another, and together they effectively dispel stasis, stop bleeding, promote granulation and engender muscle (flesh) without producing blood stasis. For such indications as hemoptysis, hematemesis, and bleeding caused by trauma. For internal use, take 3-6g of each herb, powdered, 2-3 times per day. Most bleeding can be stopped within two days. For gastric hemorrhages, it is advised to mix this powder with cool water in order to increase its vasoconstricting mechanism within the stomach.
• With Dan shen to quicken the blood, dispel stasis, nourish the heart, open the network vessels, stop pain, and settle palpitations. For indications such as chest Bi or impediment, i.e. cardiac problems with pain and severe palpitations. For these indications, wine mix-fried Dan shen should be used. This combination treats heart pain no matter what the cause. This action may be reinforced by adding Shi chang pu, Xie bai, Gua lou pi, Gui zhi, and Tan xiang.
• There are two methods of preparation of San qi:
– Uncooked San qi quickens the blood, dispels stasis, and stops bleeding.
– Steamed San qi nourishes the blood, and is not effective for either quickening the blood or stopping bleeding. If San qi is cooked by adding it together with other decocting medicinals, its ability to quicken the blood and stop bleeding is lost. Therefore, for these indications, San qi is more efficient when administered [directly] in its powdered form.
• Modern research has clearly demonstrated that San qi has a definite effect on coronary heart disease, angina pectoris, and hypercholesterolemia.
Eric Brand: San Qi, also called Tian Qi, notoginseng, or pseudoginseng, is an important medicinal substance in Chinese medicine. San Qi comes from the same genus as Chinese and American ginseng, and the plants and their roots have similarities in appearance and odor. All three of these Panax species have some overlapping constituents, though they also have significant differences in their chemistry and clinical use. In contrast to the primarily supplementing American and Chinese ginsengs, San Qi is most well-known for its ability to stop bleeding and quicken the blood.
While San Qi is easy to identify visually, it is not uncommon to see mistaken substitute for San Qi on the market. The substitute, known as Chuan San Qi, is completely unrelated but it is confused with standard San Qi because of similarity in their Chinese names. I first became aware of this issue years ago when I was still in school in California. At the time, I often hung out in Chinatown-style herb shops, and I saw that many shops would refer to the normal San Qi that we learned about in school as Tian Qi, and would dispense a different herb when San Qi was specified. All textbooks clearly state that these two names are synonymous and should both refer to normal notoginseng, and it took me years to learn what that mysterious other herb was.
The true notoginseng is the hard, dense, node-heavy product that most of us are familiar with. The false notoginseng is a sliced, light, and white root product that looks similar to yu zhu (Siberian Soloman’s seal). The white, misidentified product is known as Rhizoma Tupistrae, and it is toxic. The exact species used has not yet been definitively identified, but the genus is known. This plant is a heat-clearing, toxin-resolving substance that should not be used in place of San Qi. True san qi should be very dense, grayish-yellow, brownish-yellow, or black; the true and false products are easily distinguished visually.
Once the correct species is identified, the next issue to be aware of relates to processing methods. For authentic San Qi, we see two different products on the market. In the past, all the best San Qi was exported, and the export grade was colored with coal smoke and coated with insect wax to make it shiny. This causes the roots to have a black, shiny appearance, and the prominence of this processing method for quality San Qi caused many global markets to develop a preference for the black, shiny form. Consequently, we see this black-processed form in herb shops around the world.
Unprocessed San Qi is naturally brownish-yellow, and often slightly gray in color. Depending on the soil and growing environment, it can come out more yellowish or more brownish, but it is quite distinct from the black, shiny form. Regardless of color, the roots have the same characteristic dense, stubby, and nodular shape. San Qi is graded based on size. Small roots are inexpensive, while older and larger roots fetch a premium price.
Weng Weiliang et. al.:
Bleeding due to ulcer
San Qi Bai Ji Tang (experiential formula): san qi powder, bai ji powder, sheng da huang powder, 6g each; xian he cao, duan wa leng zi, 20g each; zhi shi 9g; chen pi, fu ling, 15g each; qing ban xia 10g. 1 dose every day. Modify the formula according to accompanied symptoms. 36 cases of bleeding due to gastric or duodenal ulcer were treated, 34 were cured, 1 markedly improved and 1 improved. The average hemostasis time was 4 days.
Ulcerative colitis
San Qi Zhen Zhu San No. 1: san qi 50g; zhen zhu 50g, er cha 50g, xue jie 50g, bai ji 50g, bing pian 15g, for patients with excessive bleeding. No. 2: san qi 50g, zhen zhu 15g, xue jie 50g, er cha 50g, bai ji 50g, bing pian 15g, da bei mu 50g, for large ulcers. 5~10g powder was added with 50~100 ml physiological saline for retention enema, once daily before sleep, 15 days as a course of treatment, 2~4 courses totally. Among 36 treated cases, 28 were basically cured, 7 improved and 1 ineffective.
San qi was ground into very fine powder, 1~3g, tid, three days as a course of treatment, 1~2 courses totally. 26 cases (17 acute and 9 chronic) enteritis were treated, 23 cured and 3 improved.

Dose: 3-9g (1-3g direct as powder)


San Qi Hua: the flower
• Sweet, cool.
• Pacifies the liver; lowers blood pressure.
• Hypertension: dizziness, vertigo, tinnitus.
• Acute sore throat.

Xian He Cao – Agrimony – “Immortal Crane Herb”

Nature: bitter, astringent, neutral

Enters: Lung, Liver, Spleen

Actions: Stops bleeding and diarrhea by astringing; kills parasites.

• Treats many forms of bleeding: hemoptysis, hematemesis, hemafecia, hematuria, epistaxis, uterine bleeding, bleeding gums. When combined appropriately, this herb can be used for heat or cold, in excess or deficient patterns.
• Chronic diarrhea or dysentery due to deficiency. Can be used as a suppository for diarrhea.
• Tapeworms.
• Trauma: Xian he cao powder is commonly used in surgery as a hemostatic: hemorrhage or seepage usually stops within 1-2 minutes.
• Topical: use the decoction as a wash for trichomonas vaginitis
• Occasionally used to “astringe” Qi – for fatigue due to overexertion.
Michael & Lesley Tierra:  The calcined ashes of Xian he cao are most effective to stop bleeding.
• For vaginitis due to trichomonas vaginalis, soak a cotton ball in a strong decoction, and insert overnight. Next morning, douche with a decoction of agrimony and yellow dock.
• Can be used to relieve pain and coalesce and strengthen the good cells of the body to resist all kinds of pathogenic influences.
• Recent: valuable for cancer (as in the formula Ping Xiao Dan).
Matt Wood: For liver Qi stagnation: irritability, suppressed emotions (similar to bupleurum).
• Nearly the same as Cinquefoil: Cinquefoil has characteristic leaves made up of five leaflets, like a hand. It (and agrimony) has a magic function to ease problems associated with labor (work with the hands, one’s calling, spiritual work) and the work environment (coworkers, boss, or other facets of the situation). Taking it or keeping some around changes a person’s environment (e.g. for an oppressive or dysfunctional work environment).
• The characteristic mental state of the agrimony patient: tension, frustration, anger, inner torment, feels “caught in a bind,” unable to do the right thing, they constrict their breathing from tension, may hold exhalation back, try to hold back pain and not complain – tension and pain hidden behind a facade – act stoic or jovial.
• Female problems: dysuria, dysmenorrhea.
• The “bad hair day” remedy: tension manifests in the hair – poor growth, frazzled, breaks, patchy, nails break also.
• Intermittent fever, chills, influenza, Shaoyang symptoms.
• Sharp, shooting pain in the kidney region.
• Helps passage of gallstones and kidney stones.
• Also for ulcers on the lower body; skin eruptions; alopecia; toxemia; hypertension; colitis, enteritis.
• Tension related to bed wetting.
• This is wolf medicine.
• Matt Wood usually gives agrimony in low-potency homeopathic doses (12x-30x) or 3 drops of the tincture daily.
Kenner & Requena: Hypoglycemiant, astringent, diuretic, anti-inflammatory, cytophylactic.
• Earth yang, metal yang.
• For diabetes; asthma; jaundice.
Earth: obesity, intestinal mycosis, gout, headache, cataracts, tonsilitis, stomatitis, pharyngitis, aphthous ulcer, infected wounds, contusions, neuritis, cholecystitis with hyperacidity.
Metal: acute bronchopneumopathy with lots of sputum, hemoptysis, headache, tonsilitis, dysentery, hoarseness, EPI with fever, diarrhea, atonic bowel.
Hong-Yen Hsu (Oriental Materia Medica): Hypotensive, anti-inflammatory, antibacterial, inhibits proliferation of some types of cancer cells, regulates heart rate.
IBIS (Dr. Mitch Stargrove, et al): Qualities: bitter, cool, dry
Affinities: liver
Actions: mild astringent, tonic, diuretic, vulnerary
Dosage: tincture: 2 – 4 mL
There is no remedy which is better suited to the treatment of tension, especially that tension to which traditional Chinese medicine refers as Constricted Liver Qi. The patient feels extreme mental tension, torment, as if caught in a bind (see Dr. Bach’s use of Agrimony). There is corresponding physical tension, as if the part were caught in a bind; constricted respiration, harassing cough; sharp pains in the kidneys (Scudder), kidney-stones, bladder and menstrual problems (Ellingwood). This is a traditional remedy for gall-stone passage. The tongue is clear, but sometimes there are longitudinal, oval ulcers. During passage of a gall- or kidney-stone, the tongue is usually dark blue or purple, due to the congestion of blood. The wiry pulse is the great indicator, in combination with the tormented mental state (Wood).
AHPA Botanical Safety Rating: 1
Toxicity: 0
Weng Weiliang et. al.:
Primary thrombocytopenia purpura
Xian he cao, sheng di, 30~60g; hua sheng yi, xue yu tan, fu ling, bai zhu, e jiao, qian cao, dan pi, jiao san xian, mai ya, gu ya, 16g each; gou qi, he shou wu, bai mao gen, ou jie, 15g each; dan shen, zhi gan cao, 9g each. Modify the formula according to accompanied symptoms, 1 dose daily, 3 months as a course of treatment. 30 cases of primary thrombocytopenia purpura were treated, and 16 markedly effective, 8 effective, 3 improved and 3 ineffective.
Purpura nephritis
Yu mi xu 30g; xian he cao, bai mao gen, 20g each; zi cao 12g; qian cao, dan pi, di yu tan, 9g each; shi wei, sheng di, haung qi, 15g each; san qi fen 3g. Modify the formula according to TCM patterns. 1 dose daily. After 30~60 doses, all treated 120 cases were cured.
Hemorrhage of the upper digestive tract
Supplemented Xie Xin Tang (huang lian 6g; huang qin 10g; da huang 8g; xian he cao, bai ji, wu zei gu, 15g each; sheng di yu 30g; ce bai tan 30g; qian cao gen 12g), 1 dose daily. 24 cases of hemorrhage of the upper digestive tract were treated and all were cured.
Xian he cao 30g, wu mei 10g, jie geng 9g, zhi sheng ma 6g, bai shao 10g, he zi rou 12g, di jin cao 24g, zhi huang qi 15g, dang shen 12g, sheng bai zhu 12g, gan cao 10g. 1 dose daily, water decoction, 14 days as a course of treatment. Modify the formula according to TCM pattern. 84 cases of chronic colitis were treated, and 69 were cured, 8 improved, 2 ineffective.
Dysfunctional uterine bleeding
Huang qi 15~30g; shu di 10~20G; e jiao 10~15g; xian he cao, di yu, bai shao, shan yao, xu duan, sang ji sheng, tu si zi, 15g each; shan yu rou 10g. Modify the formula according to TCM patterns. 1 dose daily, 6 days as a course of treatment. 56 cases of menopausal dysfunctional uterine bleeding were treated, 38 were cured, 14 effective and 4 ineffective.
Pain due to cancer
Decoction of xia he cao 50~80g was mixed with decoction of gan cao, bing lang, zhi ban xia, bai mao teng and long kui, 1 dose daily for 30 days. After 30 days, 1 dose every other day. 155 cases of pan due to cancer were treated, and 88 cases were relieved.

Dose: 9-15g

Xiao Ji – Small Thistle – Cephalanoplos

Nature: sweet, cool

Enters: Heart, Liver, Spleen

Actions: Cools the blood; stops bleeding; eliminates toxicity; slightly promotes urination.

• Heat and toxicity: boils, carbuncles.
• Heat in the blood: epistaxis, hematemesis, hemoptysis, uterine bleeding, and especially hematuria.
• Not as strong as Da ji.
Hong-Yen Hsu (Oriental Materia Medica): Hypotensive, antibacterial.

Dose: 4.5-15g

Xue Yu Tan – Charred Human Hair – “Charred Excess of the Blood”

Nature: bitter, astringent, neutral

Enters: Liver, Stomach, Heart, Kidney

Actions: Stops bleeding; promotes blood circulation; promotes urination; mildly nourishes Yin.

• Many forms of bleeding, including hemoptysis, hematuria, hemafecia, and especially uterine bleeding and epistaxis.
• Dysuria, hematuria.
• Usually taken as powder.
• For epistaxis, a small amount of the powder may be blown into the nasal cavity.
• Topical: trauma, pain, bleeding.
• Most Westerners are averse to the smell and idea of this medicine.

Dose: 1.5-9g

Zong Lu Tan – Charred Stiple Palm Fiber – Trachycarpus – “Palm Stipule”

Nature: bitter, astringent, neutral

Enters: Liver, Large Intestine, Lung, Spleen

Actions: Stops bleeding by powerfully astringing.

• Hemoptysis, hemafecia, epistaxis, uterine bleeding without blood stasis.
• Can cause blood stasis – use with a blood mover if there is a risk of stasis.
• Charring increases the herb’s astringent and stabilizing properties.
• The uncharred herb (rarely used) is called Zong lu pi.

Dose: 9-15g (1-1.5g as powder)