Notes on This Category

• These herbs are used to control sweating, diarrhea, coughing, bleeding, leukorrhea, and urination; and to retain Qi, blood, body fluids, Yin, Yang, and Jing.
• These herbs treat only the branch of diseases. The root – usually deficiency of Qi, blood, Yin, or Yang – should be treated concurrently. Most of the herbs in this category are contraindicated in cases of leakage due to excess – e.g., heat, accumulation of dampness, exterior syndromes.

Chi Shi Zhi – Red Kaolin/Kaolinite Clay – Halloysite Clay – “Crimson Stone Resin”

Nature: sweet, sour, astringent, warm

Enters: Large Intestine, Stomach, Spleen

Actions: Astringes the large intestine; stops diarrhea; stops bleeding; promotes wound healing.

• Yang deficiency cold: chronic diarrhea, dysentery, especially with blood and mucus (not for damp-heat) or chronic uterine bleeding, excessive menstruation, leukorrhea, bleeding prolapsed rectum.
• Topical: for bleeding from trauma, chronic non-healing sores, weeping damp sores.
• Usually calcined before use.
• Kaolin/kaolinite, one form of clay used as this herb is where the “Kao” in the popular diarrhea remedy Kaopectate came from (the “pect” part came from pectin). Kaopectate is now bismuth subsalicylate.
• The two main forms of clay used as this medicine, kaolinite and halloysite both have the same basic chemical structure: Al2Si2O5(OH)4. As 1:1 “alumino-silicate clay minerals,” they are rich sources of aluminum, which makes Chi shi zhi probably not safe for long term consumption, due to the potential neurotoxic role of aluminum. It may even be worth retiring from the contemporary Chinese medicinal pharmacopaeia.
Hong-Yen Hsu (Oriental Materia Medica): Anti-diarrheal, absorbs abnormally fermented food in the intestines and protects intestinal mucosa; hemostatic.
Subhuti Dharmananda: May help antidote mercury poisoning.

Dose: 9-30g

Chun Gen Pi – Chun Pi – Ailanthus bark or root bark

Nature: bitter, astringent, cold

Enters: Stomach, Large Intestine

Actions: Clears heat; dries dampness; stops leukorrhea; astringes the intestines; stops bleeding; kills parasites.

• Chronic diarrhea or dysenteric disorders (research shows very effective for acute bacillary dysentery), especially those due to damp-heat. Particularly useful when there is blood in the stool.
• Damp-heat: chronic vaginal discharge.
• Menorrhagia or uterine bleeding.
• Roundworms.
• Topical: for itchy, tinea-like rashes.

Dose: 3-15g

Fu Pen Zi – Unripe Raspberry – Rubus fruit – “Overturned Basin”

Nature: sour, sweet, slightly warm

Enters: Liver, Kidney

Actions: Tonifies and stabilizes the kidneys, controls Jing and urine; assists Yang, improves vision.

• Kidney Yang deficiency: seminal emission, frequent urination, urinary incontinence, enuresis.
• Kidney and liver deficiency: blurry vision, impotence, soreness of the lower back.
• Estrogen-like effects: may be useful in hormonal imbalance (e.g. acne) – as in Hong Jin’s acne formula.
• Astringes without trapping pathological factors.
• The name “overturned basin” may refer to this herb’s efficacy at treating urinary incontinence. After this herb cures the incontinence, the basin (bedpan or toilet) can be turned over because it is empty or is no longer needed.
Weng Weiliang et. al.: Male infertility – Carrot 500g (boiled as diet, and the left water was used to decoct the drugs); tu si zi 60g; nu zhen zi, gou qi, fu pen zi, wu wei zi, bu gu zhi, jiu cai zi, che qian zi, shan zhu yu, 15g each; sang shen, 30g, zhi gan cao 5g. Modify the formula according to accompanied symptoms. 1 dose every day, 30 days as a course of treatment, 20 days~5 months totally.489 cases were treated, and 331 were cured.

Dose: 4.5-9g

Fu Xiao Mai – Floating Wheat (light grains) – “Floating Little Wheat”

Nature: sweet, cool

Enters: Heart

Actions: Tonifies Qi; clears heat; nourishes the heart, calms the Shen; stops sweating.

• Yin, Yang, or Qi deficiency: night sweats or spontaneous sweating.
• Yin deficiency: tidal fever.
• Palpitations, insomnia, irritability, emotional instability, disorientation associated with restless organ disorder.
• Enuresis in children.
• Can be used raw or dry-fried until aromatic.
• Very safe herb.
Fu xiao mai may antagonize a wheat/gluten sensitivity – keep this in mind with sensitive patients.
DY: With Huang qi to supplement Qi, nourish the heart, clear heat, secure the exterior, and stop perspiration. For indications such as spontaneous sweating due to exterior deficiency. (Mu Li San) Use stir-fried Fu xiao mai.
• With Ma huang gen to supplement the Qi, nourish the heart, secure the exterior, clear heat, and stop perspiration. The combination is found in Mu Li San for indications such as:
– 1. Spontaneous or profuse perspiration due to Qi deficiency.
– 2. Night sweats due to Yin deficiency.
• These are under-developed grains of ripe wheat which float when the wheat is washed.
• Xiao mai (Huai xiao mai) is the heavy, full grains which sink when washed. Xiao mai is better than Fu xiao mai for nourishing the heart and quieting the Shen for visceral agitation, vexation, sadness.
Fu xiao mai is the blighted grains which, when dried, float on the surface of the water when washed. Fu xiao mai is superior to Xiao mai for stopping perspiration by astringing, eliminating heat (deficiency), and treating spontaneous perspiration, night sweats, or the feeling of heat in the bones.
• Stir-fried Fu xiao mai is more powerful than uncooked Fu xiao mai at stopping sweating.
• Wheat from southern China is reputed to be warm, while that from the north is believed to be cool.
Chen xiao mai is wheat which has been stored and aged. This is preferred by some practitioners, since the more recent wheat, freshly harvested, is too warm in nature. This warmth is lost when aged.
Bai mian is wheat flour. When stir-fried (Chao mian) it supplements the spleen and stops diarrhea.

Dose: 9-15g (DY: to 30g)

Hai Piao Xiao – Cuttlefish bone

Nature: salty, astringent, slightly warm

Enters: Liver, Kidney, Stomach

Actions: Stops bleeding and leukorrhea; controls Jing; neutralizes acid, relieves pain; promotes tissue regeneration; resolves dampness; stops diarrhea.

• Bleeding: uterine bleeding, hematemesis, hemoptysis, bleeding from trauma; especially useful for bleeding from deficiency patterns.
• Kidney deficiency: nocturnal emission, leukorrhea, spermatorrhea.
• Acid reflux, epigastric pain, peptic ulcer, foul burps (take uncooked powder).
• Deficiency: chronic diarrhea or dysentery with pain around the navel.
• With rice wine for malaria.
• Topical: chronic, non-healing skin ulcers, damp rashes of long duration, eczema.
• Topical: for bleeding (may be mixed with starch). In tooth extraction, epistaxis, and surgery – is a more effective hemostatic than either plain sponges or gelatin sponges.
Dose: 4.5-12g

He Zi – Chebulic Myrobalan fruit – Terminalia Chebula – Haritaki

Nature: bitter, sour, astringent, neutral

Enters: Lung, Large Intestine, Stomach

Actions: Astringes the Lungs and large intestine; descends Lung and large intestine Qi; eases the throat; stops coughing.

• Chronic diarrhea or chronic dysentery due to deficiency (can be used for both hot and cold patterns when combined appropriately).
• Lung deficiency: chronic cough, asthma, wheezing, hoarse voice or loss of voice (can be used for cough due to phlegm-fire obstructing the Lungs, when appropriately combined).
Yoga of Herbs (Frawley & Lad): Haritaki: means it carries away all diseases and is sacred to Shiva (also called Abhaya: promotes fearlessness).
• All tastes but salty; mainly astringent/heating/sweet; balancing to all three doshas
• Rejuvenative, tonic, astringent, laxative, nervine, expectorant, anthelmintic.
• For cough, asthma, hoarse voice, hiccups, vomiting, hemorrhoids, diarrhea, malabsorption, abdominal distention, parasites, tumors, jaundice, spleen disease, heart disease, skin disease, itching, edema, nervous disorders.
• Caution with severe exhaustion, emaciation, or dehydration.
• One of most important Ayurvedic herbs.
• Rejuvenates Vata, regulates Kapha, only aggravates Pitta in excess.
• Feeds the brain and nerves, imparts the energy of Shiva (pure awareness).
• Heals ulcerated membranes.
• Regulates the colon: based on dosage, corrects either diarrhea or constipation; improves digestion and absorption.
• Promotes voice and vision.
• Aids longevity, increases wisdom and intelligence.
• Raises prolapsed organs, checks excess discharges: including spermatorrhea, menorrhagia, sweating, leukorrhea, etc.
• Reduces accumulated and congested Vata.
Triphala, 3 fruit formula: laxative and balancing bowel tonic: haritaki (rejuvenates Vata), amalaki (rejuvenates Pitta) and bibhitaki (rejuvenates Kapha).
Heiner Freuhauf: A Sha Chong (kill worms or parasites) herb, important in Gu Zheng (Gu parasites) formulas.
Hong-Yen Hsu (Oriental Materia Medica): Antibacterial, antiviral, antispasmodic, protects ulcerations of mucosa caused by enteritis or dysentery bacteria.

Dose: 3-9g

Jin Ying Zi – Rosehip – “Golden Cherry Fruit”

ichaNature: sour, astringent, neutral

Enters: Kidney, Bladder, Large Intestine

Actions: Stabilizes the kidneys, controls Jing and urine; astringes the large intestine, stops diarrhea.

• Kidney deficiency: spermatorrhea, frequent urination, urinary incontinence, copious leukorrhea.
• Kidney and spleen deficiency: chronic diarrhea or dysentery, prolapsed rectum or uterus, excessive uterine bleeding.
• May lower cholesterol, may reduce atherosclerosis.
• Rich in vitamin C.
Michael  & Leslie Tierra: Acute postpartum uterine hemorrhage (take some of the stem and leaf along with the fruit).
Botanical Influences on Illness: Beneficial for kidney stones.
Hong-Yen Hsu (Oriental Materia Medica): Antibacterial, antiviral, (extract) quite effective for treating uterine prolapse.
Dui Yao (Sionneau): Stops abnormal vaginal discharge.
• With Qian shi to effectively supplement the kidneys, secure the essence, reduce urination, fortify the spleen, and stop diarrhea and abnormal vaginal discharge. This combination, Shui Lu Er Xian Dan, is used for indications such as:
– 1. Chronic diarrhea due to spleen-kidney deficiency. (Use bran stir-fried Qian shi.)
– 2. Urinary incontinence, enuresis, frequent micturition, and nocturia due to kidney Qi deficiency.
– 3. Chronic white vaginal discharge due to spleen-kidney deficiency.
– 4. Seminal emission and premature ejaculation due to kidney Qi not securing.

Dose: 4.5-9g

Lian Zi – Lotus seed

Nature: sweet, astringent, neutral

Enters: Spleen, Kidney, Heart

Actions: Tonifies spleen Qi; stops diarrhea; tonifies kidney Qi, controls Jing; nourishes the heart, calms the Shen.

• Spleen Qi deficiency: chronic diarrhea, poor appetite (caution when Qi deficiency has led to Qi stagnation).
• Kidney Qi deficiency: spermatorrhea, premature ejaculation, excessive uterine bleeding, vaginal discharge.
• Heart deficiency: restlessness, insomnia, palpitations, irritability.
• Especially useful for lack of communication between the heart and kidneys.
• Common dietary therapy (use up to 60g).
Lian zi should have its heart (Lian xin) removed.
• All parts of the lotus plant are medicinal. The lotus is the source of at least eight distinct herbs.
Yoga of Herbs (Frawley & Lad): (see also Ou jie, Lian xin, Lian fang) Padma, Kamala, Pushkara, more names (this is India’s most sacred plant, the symbol of spiritual unfoldment).
• Sweet, astringent/cooling/sweet
• P, V-; K+ (in excess).
• Nutritive tonic, rejuvenative, aphrodisiac, astringent, hemostatic, nervine, cardiac and seminal tonic.
• Calms the mind, subdues restless thoughts and dreams.
• Helps open the heart [fourth] chakra: for heart chakra disorders [PLB: e.g., afraid to love, to feel with the heart, to connect with others, to listen to the heart, difficulty being compassionate, emotionally closed, no sense of boundaries around intimacy, impropriety, especially around intimacy ““ see also five element interpretations of fire imbalance].
• Good for devotion and aspiration, improves speech, helps stop stuttering and improves concentration.
• Diarrhea, bleeding disorders, menorrhagia, leukorrhea, impotence, spermatorrhea, venereal disease, heart weakness.
• As a food, 5g can be taken three times daily, with basmati rice or other tonics such as Shatavari and Ashwagandha, suitably spiced and sweetened.
• The lotus is sacred to Lakshmi, the goddess of prosperity, and brings spiritual and material abundance.
Hong-Yen Hsu (Oriental Materia Medica): Relaxes smooth muscle; dilates coronary artery.

Dose: 6-15g

Ma Huang Gen – Ephedra root – “Hemp Yellow Root”

Nature: sweet, neutral

Enters: Lung

Actions: Stops sweating.

• Yin, Yang, or Qi deficiency: night sweats, spontaneous sweating, post-partum sweating.
• Similar to Fu xiao mai but stronger (they are often combined).
Ma huang gen closes the pores.
• It can be used topically.
Hong-Yen Hsu (Oriental Materia Medica): Hypotensive, dilates peripheral blood vessels.

Dose: 3-10g

Nuo Dao Gen Xu – Glutinous Rice root

Nature: sweet, neutral

Enters: Kidney, Liver, Lung

Actions: Stops sweating due to deficiency.

• Qi or Yin deficiency: spontaneous sweating or night sweats.
• Yin deficiency: fever.
Hong-Yen Hsu (Oriental Materia Medica): Suppresses sweating; sedative; tonic.

Dose: 15-60g

Qian Shi – Euryale seed – Foxnut

Nature: sweet, astringent, neutral

Enters: Spleen, Kidney

Actions: Tonifies spleen Qi, eliminates dampness; tonifies kidney Qi, controls Jing.

• Spleen Qi deficiency (and dampness): chronic diarrhea (especially good for children and often cooked in soup).
• Kidney deficiency: nocturnal emission, premature ejaculation, leukorrhea, spermatorrhea, urinary frequency or incontinence.
• Deficiency or damp-heat: vaginal discharge.
• Stronger than Lian zi to tonify kidney Qi and control Jing.
• One of the strengths of this herb is that it has almost no taste.
DY: Stops diarrhea and abnormal vaginal discharge, reduces urination.
• With Jin ying zi to effectively supplement the kidneys, secure the essence, reduce urination, fortify the spleen, and stop diarrhea and abnormal vaginal discharge. For specific indications of this combination, see Jin ying zi in this category.
Weng Weiliang et. al.:
• Prolonged diarrhea due to Spleen deficiency: Qian shi was often used in compound formula in combination with dang shen, bai zhu and shan yao, etc. to treat syndromes due to Spleen deficiency. The following formula was effective on syndromes differentiated as Spleen deficiency, especially those senile patients: dang shen, 15g; fu ling, bai zhu, lian rou, qian shi, chao bian dou, yi yi ren, 12g each; shan yao 15g; sha ren, 6g; chi shao 10g; zhi gan cao 6g, three doses every week.
• Spermatorrhea, premature ejaculation, incontinence of urine or frequent urination due to Kidney deficiency: Jin Suo Gu Jin Wan which containing Qian Shi had good therapeutic effect on spermatorrhea and frequent urination. Supplemented Shui Lu Er Xian Dan (qian shi, jin ying zi, nu zhen zi, 15g each; wu wei zi, shan yu rou, 10g each; tu si zi 12g; lian xu 10g; dang gui 10g; bai shao 10g; zhi gan cao 6g) was effective in treating spermatorrhea, impotence, premature ejaculation, irregular menstruation and leukerrhea, etc..
• Proteinuria due to chronic nephritis: Qian shi, shan yao, 30g each; jin ying zi, huang qi, bai he, huang jing, wu mei tan, 15g; bai zhu, fu ling, 12g; shan zha rou, pi pa rou, 10g each; shui zhi powder 3g (taken with water), tu si zi 20g. The formula was modified according to accompanied symptoms to treat 37 cases of proteinuria due to chronic nephritis, and 31 cases were completely relieved, 1 basically relieved and 5 ineffective.

Dose: 9-15g (to 30g in severe cases)

Rou Dou Kou – Nutmeg – Myristica seed – “Fleshy Cardamom”

Nature: acrid, warm

Enters: Spleen, Stomach, Large Intestine

Actions: Warms the middle Jiao; promotes Qi circulation; alleviates pain; astringes the large intestine, stops diarrhea.

• Spleen and stomach or spleen and kidney Yang deficiency cold: chronic diarrhea, daybreak diarrhea (not for damp-heat patterns).
• Yang deficiency cold with Qi stagnation: distention and pain of the epigastrium and abdomen, poor appetite, vomiting.
• Preparation: smash on paper and allow the paper to soak up the oil (otherwise will exacerbate diarrhea); very small doses of the oil (0.03-0.2 mL) directly stimulate the gastrointestinal tract.
• Roast to increase its ability to warm the middle Jiao and stop diarrhea.
• One constituent, myristicin, is an MAO inhibitor and a hallucinogen in large doses.
Yoga: Jatiphala: V, K-; P+
• Pungent/heating/pungent.
• Astringent, carminative, sedative, nervine, aphrodisiac, stimulant.
• For poor absorption, abdominal pain and distention, diarrhea, dysentery, intestinal gas, insomnia, nervous disorders, impotence.
• Increases absorption in the small intestine.
• Reduces high Vata in the colon and nervous system.
• Calms the mind (500 mg in warm milk before sleep).
Tamasic: in excess it can dull the mind.
DY: Scatters cold; disperses distention.
• With Bu gu zhi to supplement spleen and kidney Yang, secure the intestines, and stop daybreak or “cock-crow” diarrhea. For indications such as:
– 1. Chronic diarrhea due to spleen-kidney Yang deficiency. (Si Shen Wan) Use salt mix-fried Bu gu zhi and roasted Rou dou kou.
– 2. Daybreak diarrhea with abdominal pain and rumbling noises due to spleen-kidney Yang deficiency. (Er Shen Wan)
PCBDP: Spasmolytic, anti-emetic, orexigenic, topical anti-inflammatory.
• Decreases prostaglandin levels in the colon, PGE2 inhibitor – has been used successfully in Crohn’s disease.
Dose: 1.5-9g

Sang Piao Xiao – Praying Mantis Egg Case

Nature: sweet, salty, neutral

Enters: Liver, Kidney

Actions: Mildly tonifies kidney Yang; controls Jing and urine.

• Kidney Yang deficiency (leading to failure of the kidneys to control the orifices): enuresis, spermatorrhea, frequent urination, urinary incontinence, copious leukorrhea (not for damp-heat), nocturnal emissions (especially when not accompanied by dreams).
• This is the herb of choice for bed wetting in children.
Hong-Yen Hsu (Oriental Materia Medica): Suppresses urination and sweating.
Weng Weiliang, et. al.:
• Children’s enuresis: Sang piao xiao, duan mu li, 12g each; jiu cai zi 6g; ku fan 3g were decocted to 50ml juice. Take the juice before sleep. 50 cases of children’s enuresis were treated, 45 were cured and 5 ineffective.
• Spermatorrhea: Sang piao xiao 10g; tu si zi, gou qi, bu gu zhi, 12g each; sheng long gu, sheng mu li, 25g each; with impotence, add dang gui, bai shao and zhi gan cao, 12g each; wu gong, 2 pieces.
• Shingles: Sang piao xiao was baked with a slow fire to charred ones, and grounded into fine powder, which was mixed with sesame oil into paste and applied to affected areas of shingles, 3~5 days every day. 30 cases were treated and all were cured.
Subhuti Dharmananda: “Sang Piao Xiao San – Example of a Mind-Body Formula”

Dose: 3-9g

Shan Zhu Yu – Shan Yu Rou – Cornus fruit – Asiatic Cornelian Cherry – Chinese Dogwood fruit

Nature: sour, slightly warm

Enters: Liver, Heart, Kidney

Actions: Tonifies kidney and liver Yin; astringes the lower Jiao; astringes sweat; slightly tonifies kidney Yang; stabilizes the kidneys, controls Jing; stops excessive sweating, supports what has collapsed; stabilizes the menses; stops bleeding (weak); may mildly nourish Jing.

• Kidney and liver deficiency: dizziness, vertigo, weakness of the lumbar region and knees, impotence.
• Yang collapse or Qi collapse: shock, excessive sweating.
• Kidney Qi deficiency: seminal emission, urinary incontinence, profuse sweating.
• Deficiency: excessive uterine bleeding, prolonged menstruation.
• Difficult to digest.
Dr. Wei Li calls Shan zhu yu the “Ginseng for the Kidneys,” and claims this herb is more of a tonic than an astringent.
Pearls from the Golden Cabinet (Subhuti Dharmananda): For alternating hot and cold (not Shaoyang) due to internal injury to the Jueyin liver system – e.g. extreme liver deficiency causing sudden sensation of heat and cold, and dangerous loss of sweat.
Oriental Materia Medica (Hong-Yen Hsu): Diuretic, antibacterial, antihistamine actions.
Weng Weiliang, et. al.: This herb is indicated in the treatment of diabetes, lumbago, impotence, enuresis, infertility, vertigo, spermatorrhea, functional uterine bleeding.
Chronic pharyngitis:
Yang Yin Jiang Huo Tang (experiential formula): shu di 30g; shan zhu yu, wu wei zi, dan pi, bai jiang can, chuan niu xi, 10g each. Modify the formula according to TCM differentiation, 1 dose every day. Other treating methods were also applied. 15 days as a course of treatment, 32 patients were treated, and 31 were effective.
shan yu rou, wu wei zi, dan shen, 30g each; huang qi, 40g. Modify the formula according to TCM differentiation, 1 dose every day, 1 month as a course of treatment. 300 cases were treated, and the effective rate was 85%.
Albuminuria due to nephropathy:
Yi Shen Li Shui Huo Xue Fang: shan yu rou, ze xie, dan pi, sang bai pi, 10g each; shan yao, sheng di, huai niu xi, chi shao, 15g each; che qian zi 10g; dan shen 30g; da huang 3~6g. Modify the formula according to TCM differentiation. 1 dose every day. 153 cases were treated, after 6~30 doses, 148 cases’ albuminuria turned negative.
Zi Yin Bu Shen Tang (experiential formula): shan yu rou 30g, shan yao, gou qi, huai niu xi, shu di, 15g each; gui ban, e jiao, 6g each; tu si zi 20g, bai zhu, sha ren and chen pi etc. were also added. 1 dose every day, water decoction. After 2~7 days’ treatment, 25 were effective, 1 ineffective. This formula was fit for leucopenia caused by chemotherapy or radiotherapy in the treatment of tumor.
Prostatic hyperplasia:
Tong Qian Tang (experiential formula): shu di, shan zhu yu, 12g each; rou gui, bai zhu, chuan shan jia, dang gui, niu xi, hai zao, kun bu, wang bu liu xing, 10g each; fu ling 20g; ze xie 15g. Modify the formula according to TCM differentiation. 1 dose every day, water decoction. After 30~60 days’ treatment, 48 out of 52 cases were effective.
Stroke in the convalescent stage:
sheng di, nu zhen zi, shan zhu yu, niu xi, chuan xiong, hong hua, dang gui, di long, 10g each; shan zha, 15g; sang ji sheng, ji xue teng, 20g each. Modify the formula according to TCM differentiation. 161 cases were treated, except for 8 ineffective cases, certain effects were obtained.

Dose: 3-12g (30-200g in shock)

Shi Liu Pi – Pomegranate rind

Nature: sour, astringent, warm, slightly toxic

Enters: Stomach, Large Intestine, Kidney

Actions: Astringes the large intestine, stops diarrhea; kills parasites; stabilizes the kidneys, controls Jing.

• Chronic diarrhea or chronic dysentery (not for acute), rectal prolapse.
• Abdominal pain due to roundworms (only when worms give rise to chronic diarrhea) – not strong as Shi jun zi.
• Roundworms, tapeworms, topical for ringworm.
• Kidney instability: spermatorrhea, premature ejaculation, excessive uterine bleeding, vaginal discharge.
• Amebic dysentery.
• Not for early stages of diarrhea.
• Should not be taken with oils or fats, in order to prevent absorption of toxin into the system.
• Use charred to stop bleeding.

Dose: 3-9g

Shi Liu Gen Pi: the root bark
• Much stronger at killing parasites, especially tapeworms and roundworms, than Shi liu pi.
John Christopher (The School of Natural Healing): (various parts, especially the root bark) Anthelmintic (taeniafuge, vermifuge), astringent, refrigerant, antibilious, anticancerous.
• Use the rind for sore throat.
Yoga of Herbs (Frawley & Lad): Dadima: (rind, root bark, fruit)
• Sweet variety: VPK=
• The sour variety may aggravate Pitta. The sweet variety may increase Ama.
• The rind is anti-inflammatory to the mucus membranes.
• Use as a douche for leukorrhea.
• Topical (paste) for sores, ulcers, hemorrhoids.
• All parts are stomachic, anthelmintic, especially the root bark.
Hong-Yen Hsu (Oriental Materia Medica): Antibacterial, antiviral, antifungal.

Dose: 1.5-9g

Wu Bei Zi – Gall of Chinese Sumac (caused by the insect Melaphis) – Galla Chinensis

Nature: sour, salty, cold

Enters: Kidney, Lung, Large Intestine

Actions: Astringes Lung Qi; stops coughing; astringes the large intestine, stops diarrhea; controls leakage of fluids; absorbs moisture; reduces swelling; relives fire toxicity.

• Lung deficiency: chronic cough.
• Chronic diarrhea, dysenteric disorders, chronic blood in the stool, rectal prolapse.
• Leakage: nocturnal emission, spermatorrhea, excessive sweating, bleeding.
• Topical: as a powder or wash for sores, ringworm, toxic swellings, damp and ulcerated skin.
• Topical: for scar tissue.
• Topical: apply as a paste to the navel for night sweats (from tuberculosis in one study) or asthma.
• Antibiotic against a wide range of bacteria and some viruses.
• Inhibits dental cavity formation (caries). According to this STUDY, “Galla chinensis water extract (GCE) has been demonstrated to inhibit dental caries by favorably shifting the demineralization/remineralization balance of enamel and inhibiting the biomass and acid formation of dental biofilm.”
Hong-Yen Hsu (Oriental Materia Medica): Hemostatic, antibacterial, antiviral, antifungal, stimulates the CNS, regulates the cardiovascular system – improves blood circulation, hypotensive.
Journal of Traditional Chinese Medicine: It was recorded in Ben Cao Gan Mu that Wu bei zi can astringe the Lungs, drain fire, transform phlegm, dissipate red swellings, eliminate toxicity, astringe non-healing ulcers, and lift prolapse of the anus, uterus and intestines. Modern scientific research shows that Wu bei zi contains tannic acid which has can coagulate proteins and blood locally, promoting the healing of ulcers.
• Mouth Ulcers:
Recurrent mouth ulcers are difficult to treat. Dry Wu bei zi powder often produces results within a week. Apply the powder 5 to 6 times a day. Usually the pain will be reduced and ulcers will heal in 7 days.
• Hemorrhoids and Prolapse of the Anus or Uterus:
Wu bei zi can astringe kidney Qi. The kidney opens to the external genital area. So, Wu bei zi can be used for kidney deficiency causing prolapse in the genital area.
For hemorrhoids, after the patient moves their bowels, clean the anus with warm water. Put 5g Wu bei zi powder on gauze and gently apply to the anus. Usually hemorrhoids will heal within a week.
For uterine prolapse mix Wu bei zi powder with sesame oil to make a paste. Apply the paste to gauze, insert into the vagina at night before bed, and remove it in the morning. Recovery will usually occur within 2 weeks.
For anal prolapse, break 60g Wu bei zi into small pieces. Cover with water, bring to a boil, and cook for 30 minutes. While the decoction is still steaming, let the steam bathe the anus. Then wash the anus with the decoction, or sit in a basin of the fluid for 30 minutes. The prolapse will usually be reduced after three washes, with total recovery in a week.
• Spontaneous Sweats and Night Sweats:
It was recorded in Ben Cao Bei Yao that Wu bei zi has a strong function to astringe the Lung. With its cool nature it can clear heat, transform phlegm and stop coughing, and it can also stop bleeding and sweating. Sweating is related to the Lungs. The umbilicus is the key point on the Ren Mai, and the Ren Mai can adjust all the Yin meridians in the body. When Wu bei zi enters this point, it can help the Ren Mai adjust all the Yin meridians in order to astringe sweating.
Traditional Chinese medical theory states that spontaneous sweats are a symptom of Yang deficiency and that night sweats indicate Yin deficiency, but in the clinic this is not always true – we still need to differentiate. However, either type can be treated with topical herbs. The combination known as Long Bei San is comprised of equal parts Wu bei zi powder and calcined Long gu. Mix Long Bei San with a small amount of water, apply to the umbilicus, and cover with an adhesive bandage. Change the application every other day. Usually it takes 2 to 6 applications to arrest the sweating.
• Eneursis and Seminal Emission:
Wu bei zi secures the essence of the kidney and the Qi of the bladder. Accordingly, it is a good herb for the treatment of enuresis and seminal emission caused by kidney deficiency.
For children’s bed wetting, the use of Long Bei San provides good results. For patients with seminal emission, combining Long Bei San on the umbilicus while simultaneously administering an internal formula yields better results.
Modern research shows that Wu bei zi contains tannic acid which can coagulate protein and form a thin membrane to strengthen the filtration capacity of the nephron tubule and increase resorption from the nephron. As a result, it can prevent proteinuria.
• Chronic Diarrhea and Dysentery:
Wu bei zi powder and white pepper powder can be mixed with a few drops of white wine, applied to the umbilicus, and covered with an adhesive bandage. A hot water bottle can be used to warm the abdomen simultaneously. The powder should be changed every other day.
• Toothache:
Zhao Pin Su liked to use Wu bei zi as a topical herb to treat all kinds of toothaches including those caused by wind-heat, stomach fire, tooth decay, etc. Dosage ranged from 10 to 30g. He said Wu bei zi was the best herb for the treatment of toothache, especially when caused by tooth decay. Wu bei zi powder can be applied to the painful spot or it can be decocted and gargled with. Sometimes the toothache stops immediately. Afterwards, the decayed area can be filled with Ru xiang to prevent inflammation.
• Chronic Cough due to Lung and Kidney Qi Deficiency Caused by Excessive Dispersion of the Lung:
(Because Wu bei zi has very strong astringent action, it is not indicated for acute cough caused by an EPI.) Prepare a formula of 100g each of Wu bei zi, Hu tao rou, Mai men dong, and Wu wei zi, grind to a powder, and give 6g twice a day, morning and night. Two to eight weeks of treatment with the above combination produces good results in every case.

Dose: 4.5-9g

Wu Mei – Mume fruit – Black Plum – “Dark Plum”

Nature: sour, neutral

Enters: Liver, Spleen, Lung, Large Intestine

Actions: Astringes Lung Qi; astringes the large intestine; stops coughing and diarrhea; generates body fluids, eases thirst; calms roundworms; stops bleeding.

• Lung Qi deficiency: chronic cough.
• Chronic diarrhea, chronic dysentery, blood in the stool.
• Yin deficiency (or Qi deficiency) heat: thirst, wasting and thirsting disorder.
• Roundworms (also for hookworms): epigastric and abdominal pain, vomiting (must purge the patient after calming the worms with Wu mei).
• Occasionally used for abdominal pain and vomiting without parasites.
• Bleeding: uterine, fecal (especially when there are accompanying symptoms of blood deficiency including dryness, thirst, parched mouth).
• Topical (as a paste made by powdering and mixing with vinegar, or in plaster form): protruding lumps on the skin – warts, corns, etc.
• Bensky/Gamble: soften the growth in hot water, remove it, then apply the herb, cover with gauze, and change every 24 hours.
• Bacillary dysentery.
• Stimulates production of bile and contraction of bile duct.
• Partially char when using to stop bleeding.
Dr. Wei Li (Portland, Oregon) gives in large dose for recalcitrant skin disease, such as eczema (20-100g).
Hong-Yen Hsu (Oriental Materia Medica): Pronounced antibacterial effect, antifungal, anti-allergic effect.
Bob Flaws: Mume is a plum picked green in the fifth month. It is then preserved by drying over a slow-baking fire for several days. In Japan, umeboshi is made from this same plum which is pickled with salt and Perilla leaves (called chiso in Japanese). According to Michio Kushi, a leading proponent of Japanese macrobiotics, umeboshi plums “neutralize an acidic condition and relive intestinal problems, including those caused by microorganisms.” Another Macrobiotic teacher, Naburo Muramoto, says: “As medicine the umeboshi plum works miracles. Stomach aches, stomach cramps, migraines, certain types of headaches, and acidity are some of the minor pains these plums can relieve. They also counteract fatigue and act as a preventive against dysentery.”
Wu Mei Wan with additions and subtractions can be used for women with severe dysmenorrhea in turn due to endometriosis with a pattern of damp heat stasis and stagnation, spleen qi deficiency, and even a bit of yang deficiency.
In modern Chinese medicine, Mume has three main uses. First, it astringes the intestines and stops diarrhea. Secondly, it expels worms or parasites. And third, it engenders fluids. However, the Shen Nong Ben Cao says that Mume “precipitates or descends the qi, eliminates heat and vexatious fullness, quiets the heart, relieves pain in the limbs, treats hemilateral withering, insensitivity, and dead muscles, and removes green-blue and black moles and malign diseases.” Likewise, the Ri Hua Zi Ben Cao says Mume “eliminates taxation [read: deficiency]…and treats one-sided withering of the skin with numbness and impediment.” Pain in the limbs, one-sided withering, insensitivity, and dead muscles might certainly be describing an autoimmune condition like MS or amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). And the Ben Cao Tu Jing says Mume “rules … vacuity taxation emaciation and skinniness” which might also describe certain autoimmune and immune deficiency diseases. Vexatious fullness suggests liver depression qi stagnation, the necessity of precipitating the qi suggests upward counterflow, eliminating heat suggests depressive heat, and quieting the heart, when read together with the other symptoms, suggests yin fire disturbing the heart spirit. Li Dong-yuan did sometimes use Mume in his yin fire formulas. Green-blue and black moles suggest blood stasis, while malign diseases means both injurious diseases and also suggests blood stasis, since static blood is also called malign blood.
Heiner Fruehauf says that a number of medicinals are specifically quieting to the spirit in gu zheng cases. He then goes on to list a number of yin-enriching, fluid-engendering medicinals, such as Radix Glehniae Littoralis (Bei Sha Shen), Bulbus Lilii (Bai He), and Rhizoma Polygonati (Huang Jing). Fructus Pruni Mume likewise engenders fluids. It is also the best known of the commonly used Chinese medicinals for treating worms or parasites. Although Fruehauf does not mention Mume being described in the Chinese gu zheng literature as a typical anti-gu medicinal. I believe it should be. In addition, I think the combination of Mume and Perilla is a very effective one in clinical practice. One can add Mume to anti-gu formulas containing Perilla and/or eat Japanese umeboshi plums as a condiment in their diet. (Perilla, by the way, can also be grown as a self-reseeding garden herb and eaten as a salad green.)
See also BF’s commentary on Zi su ye, where he discusses the use of Mume in combination with dispersing herbs to prevent depletion.

Dose: 3-9g

Wu Wei Zi – Schizandra fruit – “Five Flavor Seed”

Nature: sour, warm

Enters: Lung, Kidney, Heart

Actions: Strongly astringes Lung Qi, stops coughing; mildly nourishes kidney Yin; generates body fluids; stops sweating; controls Jing; stops diarrhea; quiets the Shen and calms the heart.

• Lung deficiency or Lung/kidney deficiency: asthma and cough, especially chronic (inhibits leakage of Lung Qi above, nourishes kidney Yin below).
• Yin deficiency: night sweats.
• Yang deficiency: spontaneous sweating.
• Body fluid injury: thirst.
• Kidney deficiency: seminal emission, including nocturnal, vaginal discharge, frequent urination.
• Kidney and spleen deficiency: chronic/daybreak diarrhea, seminal emission.
• Kidney and heart Yin deficiency with blood deficiency: insomnia, dream-disturbed sleep, palpitations, irritability.
• Skin disorders.
• May improve liver function in hepatitis: reduces liver enzyme levels (particularly SGPT).
• Stimulatory effects: improves reflexes, stimulates respiration through a direct effect on the CNS: helps resistance of respiratory depression from morphine.
• Can induce/promote labor.
• Increases visual acuity and visual field.
• Raises acuity of tactile discrimination.
• Adaptogenic.
• Beneficial in neurasthenia.
• Soak in 80-proof alcohol as a medicinal wine for itchiness and irritation of the skin associated with a wind rash.
• Crush before using.
• Use dry for deficiency heat.
• Use wine-prepared for tonification.
Michael & Leslie Tierra: Inhibits loss of physical and mental energy. Its spirit calming effects lie in its ability to heal and prevent loss of psycho-physiological energy.
• Useful for those who tend to feel agitated or scattered.
• Can be taken in wine to calm the heart/Shen.
Hong-Yen Hsu (Oriental Materia Medica): Excites the CNS, increases brain efficiency, regulates the cardiovascular system to improve circulation, antitussive, expectorant, stimulates uterine smooth muscle, strongly antibacterial, cardiotonic, analgesic, cholagogue.
Journal of Traditional Chinese Medicine:
• Insomnia and Memory Loss:
Wu wei zi can nourish Yin and harmonize Yang, astringe Yang into the Yin, balance the zang-fu organs, calm the shen and strengthen the will. Li Pei Shen has an extensively used formula called Wu Wei An Mian Tang, containing Wu wei zi, Fu shen, He huan hua, and Fa ban xia. It is very effective at treating stubborn insomnia.
Typical daily doses: Wu wei zi 50g, Fu shen 50g, He huan hua 15g, Fa ban xia 15g
• Chronic Fatigue and Menopausal Symptoms:
Liu Zhen Ji often used a large dose of Wu wei zi to treat chronic fatigue with difficult recovery after extreme physical labor, and menopausal symptoms.
Typical dose for menopausal symptoms or extreme physical exhaustion: 100g/day.
It is recorded in Yong Yao Fa Xiang that Wu wei zi has the function to tonify the source Qi and astringe dispersed Qi. Modern pharmacological research shows that Wu wei zi can improve human intelligence and efficiency. At concentrations of 5 to 10 mg in the bloodstream, Wu wei zi can improve the attention and balance movement by affecting muscle chemistry. (It also works through enhancement of the cortex.) Wu wei zi can stimulate the smooth muscle of the uterus, so it is not recommended for pregnant women.
• Prevention of Asthmatic Bronchitis:
blockage and rebellion of Qi in the bronchi: recurrent bronchial spasm, shortness of breath, coughing, expectoration of mucus and wheezing
Li Zhen Lin used a method which had been passed on in his family for the treatment of night sweats – application of Wu wei zi to the navel – for a patient who also had asthmatic bronchitis. When the night sweats were gone he found that the asthmatic bronchitis was cured as well. (Overall efficacy rate is about 85%.)
Method of application: grind raw Wu wei zi to a powder and add 70% ethanol. Mix to form a paste and save in a bottle. Take an egg-sized amount of paste, put on the umbilicus, cover with plastic wrap and use tape to fix it in place. It is usually applied before bed and removed the following morning. Re-evaluate the patient after 3 20-day courses.
Pharmacological research shows that Wu wei zi can enhance the body’s defenses against irritants and improve function of the adrenal cortex and the immune system. Shen Que [CV-8] has a biao-ne relationship with the Du Mai, connects with the twelve meridians, five zang and six fu organs, and joins the upper and lower body. Medical research shows the umbilicus is the last place to close during the development of the embryo. Beneath it, there is no adipose tissue, but a number of large blood and lymph vessels and nerves. From an anatomical perspective, the umbilicus is thus an excellent passage for absorption of topical herbs. The properties of Wu wei zi penetrate this passage to act on the human body.
• Treatment of Viral Hepatitis:
Research has shown that Wu wei zi can decrease glutamine- alanine transaminase, the enzyme which converts glutamic acid to alanine – necessary for propagation of the hepatitis virus. The key components in Wu wei zi that can decrease glutamine-alanine transaminase are in the seed of the Wu wei zi fruit. So the correct way to prepare Wu wei zi is to bake it and then grind it into a powder. Take the powder, 3g at a time, three times a day. It also can be made into pills with honey. If cooked in a decoction, it must be ground first.
When using Wu wei zi to lower glutamine-alanine transaminase, we need to be cautious. After glutamine-alanine transaminase is back to normal, we should decrease the dosage of the Wu wei zi. If we use only Wu wei zi to lower the glutamine-alanine transaminase level, it is easy for the patient to relapse. When jaundice appears we should move the blood and dispel blood stasis. It is better to disperse the pathogen than to astringe it. Sometimes only using Wu wei zi can trap the pathogen inside and the disease will progress to severe jaundice or cirrhosis of the liver. Therefore, the best way to treat hepatitis is to combine Wu wei zi with some herbs to move Qi and blood and dispel blood stasis.
• Diabetes:
Wu wei zi is very effective at treating Type II diabetes mellitus (non-insulin dependent). The source of the disease is related to deficiency of the prenatal yuan Qi and postnatal imbalance, causing kidney deficiency and leakage of the Jing, blood, and body fluids. Wu wei zi’s sweet taste can strengthen the spleen, and the sour can astringe. In this case, astringing means storage. The kidney is in charge of the storage of Jing, so Wu wei zi is a key herb to tonify the kidney and treat diabetes. Use a large dosage of Wu wei zi and make it into pills. If the patient has hypertension, add Yi mu cao, and Huai niu xi. If the patient has high cholesterol and atherosclerosis, add Jue ming zi, He shou wu, Dan shen, and Shan zha. If the patient has coronary artery disease, add San qi, Jiang xiang, and Tian hua fen.
The Lung is the upper water passage and the kidney is the lower water passage. Insufficiency of the upper water passage and leakage from the lower water passage are the key causes of polydipsia and glucosuria in diabetes. Wu wei zi enters the Lung and kidney, and it can astringe the Lung and tonify the kidney – this is how it can ease thirst and prevent the leakage of Jing.
• Itchiness and Dryness of the Throat:
When treating dryness and itchiness of the throat, the first herb to consider is Wu wei zi. Wu wei zi nourishes body fluids, eases dryness, and also works for itchiness caused by allergies. When Wu wei zi is added to Shao Yao Gan Cao Tang, Zhen Yue Tang, and Yang Ying Qin Fei Tang, the sour flavor combined with the sweet can produce Yin and body fluids, ease dryness and benefit the throat. This method is widely used in chronic pharyngitis caused by Lung and kidney Yin xu or dryness and itchiness of the throat after chemotherapy. It follows the idea that sour and sweet can produce Yin, as recorded in the Nei Jing.
When Wu wei zi is added to formulas such as Yu Ping Feng San, Jin Fang Bai Du San, Qing Fei San, etc., the sour flavor of Wu wei zi can balance the acrid herbs such as Fang feng, Jing jie, Bo he, etc. In this way, we can disperse pathogenic factors and at the same time astringe the Qi and body fluids to stop the itchiness of the throat. Clinically we use these combinations to treat cough with itchiness and dryness of the throat due to allergic pharyngitis.
Wu Wei Zi Can Constrict the Pupils and Stop Tearing:
It was written in Yong Yao Fa Xiang that Wu wei zi can astringe dispersed Qi and constrict enlarged pupils. It was explained in Yi Xue Zhong Zhong Chan Xi Lu that the sour flavor of Wu wei zi can enter the liver, and the liver opens to the eyes, so Wu wei zi can “astringe” dilated pupils. Because tears are the fluid of the liver, and Wu wei zi enters the liver, it can astringe tears also. However, it cannot treat all forms of pupil dilation and tearing. Due to its warm nature and sour taste, it can treat symptoms caused by liver and kidney deficiency or liver Qi consumption. It was recorded in Yan Ke Liu Jin Fa Yao that Wu wei zi is good for treatment of eye problems caused by liver Qi stagnation, excess heat in the Lung, or spleen Qi xu with dampness.
Three additional guidelines to consider when using:
1. Large doses, from 10 to 20g, can be used with no side effects from long-term use.
2. It can be combined with a small dose of Gan cao, so as to blend sweet and sour and produce Yin. This combination will strengthen Wu wei zi’s nourishing function, and it can be taken for a long time.
3. When cooking Wu wei zi in a decoction we must grind it into a powder first, just as Zhang Xi Chun said. Wu wei zi’s skin is sour and its seed is acrid. So as a whole (when ground to release the contents of the entire fruit and seed) its astringing and dispersing functions are balanced.
• Topical Use for (Non-Healing) Ulcers:
After cleaning the surface of the ulcer, apply a small amount of Wu wei zi powder and cover with sterile gauze. Change the gauze every other day.
When applied in the clinic, we need to wait until all the toxins and unhealthy tissue on the surface are gone. Be cautious not to apply too much powder, because too much will form a scab and cover the surface, which prolongs healing time. Apply a thin enough layer of Wu wei zi powder so that the tissue beneath is still visible.
Dui Yao (Sionneau): With Gan jiang to effectively warm the Lungs, transform phlegm, stop cough, and calm asthma. For indications such as cough and/or asthma with profuse, clear, and white phlegm due to cold in the Lungs, Lung Yang deficiency, or phlegm-cold. For these indications, the combination is used in Xiao Qing Long Tang accompanied by Xi xin. For more details on the mechanisms of the combination of Wu wei zi and Gan jiang, see Gan jiang. • Bioavailability of Schisandrin lignans is poor in water, and can be enhanced in the presence of fatty acids or a good solvent. Although most lignans appear to be absorbed, some have a relatively greater absorption than each other and they can increase each other’s absorption.
• In general, ethanolic extracts of the fruit are preferred due to higher extraction of lignans. The ethanolic extract per se is sometimes dubbed Wurenchun in traditional chinese medicine.
• Despite all lignans being bioactive and of concern, Schisandrin and y-Schisandrin tend to be seen as the ‘main’ lignans; the comprise 0.5% and 0.3% of the Schisandra fruit by weight, respectively and on average.[3] The lignans tend to be named related to either the plant (lignans that sound like Shisandra) the Japanese tea Gomishi made from Schisandra berries (Gomisin lignans) or the Chinese name for the ethanolic extract of Schisandra, Wuweizi (some of the nortriterpenoids).
• The lignans are also found in the shoot and leaves, just in a higher concentration in the fruits.[13][15] Some of them possess an anti-oxidant capacity.[16] It has been estimated that maximum value of total lignans reaches 6-11% at flowering in the stem and bark of Schisandra Chinensis, in which 3-8% was either Schisandrin, Schisandrol, or Gomisin A.
• Has potential to interact with a large range of pharmaceuticals, and should be used with caution in drug-drug combinations
• Schisandra interacts with Warfarin by increasing clearance rate; consult a doctor prior to using Schisandra fruit extracts if using Warfarin.
• The entire fruit of Schisandra has been shown to activate the PXR receptor in rats, and increased Warfarin clearance rate.[1] It (in reference to Schisandrol B in particular, but also the entire class of lignans in Schisandra[24]) also acts as a P-glycoprotein inhibitor and can increase circulating Paclitaxel concentrations in rats[25] and 300mg fruit extract has been shown to increase the Cmax of talinolol by 51% and the 24-hour AUC by 47%, approximately double the potency of 120mg Ginkgo Biloba.
• Schisandria Chinensis fruit extract is able to inhibit the CYP3A4 enzyme[27] which metabolizes over 50% of pharmaceuticals; this inhibition may be due to the Lignan components, specifically Schisandrin A and B[28] and more potently with Gomisin A.[29] Despite a roughly equipotent inhibition of CYP3A4, the combination Kampo therapy including the fruit extract (Shoseiryuto) did not actually alter subsequent pharmacokinetics of nifedipine, a tracer drug.
• Schisandra lignans as hormetic anti-oxidants underlies most of the therapeutic, preventative, and (theoretically, not yet demonstrated) life enhancing properties of Schisandra Chinensis in most organ systems Schisandra has been demonstrated to reach (brain, liver, lungs, kidneys, spleen, and heart).
• Circulation has been shown to be improved by approximately 9% after consumption of Schisandra at 130mg daily in persons who, although otherwise healthy, had slightly impaired blood flow.
• The direct mechanism may be (in part) due to weak agonism of Estrogen receptors,[41] which increases activity of the NO-cGMP pathway and induces endothelial relaxation. Increase Nitric Oxide circulating after ingestion of about 360mg Schisandra Chinensis extract has been noted in human athletes of both novice and elite caliber.
• In part, subjective improvements in cognition can be attributed to placebo or reductions in stress. Currently, the only human study on cognition related to Schisandra has been conducted under conditions of stress.[45] Schisandra seems to possess adaptogenic properties, reducing the biochemical markers of perceived stress; this effect has been recorded as reductions in corticosterones, and reductions in stress-induced liver damage.
Another possible mechanisms of improved cognition is pertaining to acetylcholine, whereas consumption of Schisandra Chinensis fruits is associated with inhibiting Acetylcholinesterase (thereby increasing levels of acetylcholine) and simultaneously possessing the capacity to enhance Cholinergic signalling in the presence of a ligand.
• Schisandrin B appears to be an active lignan in protecting the heart tissue from myocardial infarction damage via glutathione (primarily in the cardiac mitochondria[51]), but only when preloaded suggesting a preventative effect rather than rehabilitative.
• There is biological basis for claims of Schisandra Chinensis fruit extract (some of the lignans) to benefit the heart organ itself, and it appears to induce these benefits by a hormetic (induce a bit of harm, reap a greater amount of benefit) mechanism.
• Schisandra Chinensis extract appears to be able to increase blood flow and nitric oxide bioavailability, which can compliment the previously mentioned cardio-protective effects.
• In general, research from Russia past suggests Schisandra Fruit extract is able to exert an adaptogenic effect and reduce stress from abnormal temperatures.
• A study in rats suggest that one of the lignans from Schisandra, Deoxyschizandrin, was able to increase memory and cognition in mice with excessive beta-amyloid pigmentation; this was hypothesized to be secondary to its anti-oxidative abilities, and suggests Schisandra may help Alzheimer’s Disease symptoms.[74] Schisandrin B also exerts a general protective effect on scopolamine-induced memory impairment.[75] In this latter study, a preservation of glutathione levels was seen in rats subject to Schisandra.
• Schisandrin was also implicated in enhancing M1 receptor (cholinergic) neurotransmission as assessed by oxotermorine-induced tremors, able to enhance the tremoring effects of the drug while not confering any tremors on its own at this dose; oral doses of 1 and 10mg/kg bodyweight water extract were insignificantly different. [46] Injections of 175mg/kg Schisandrin do induce convulsions, however.
• In accordance with traditional usage of Schisandra as a hypnotic and sedative (and to treat insomnia, historically[77]), a study in mice found that oral administration of 100-200mg/kg bodyweight Schisandra extract was able to attenuate rises in catecholamines and cortisol associated with restraint stress and increase the amount of anxiolytic behaviours of mice (relative to control).[77] Schisandra was more effective than Diazepam at normalizing adrenaline and serotonin changes in stress, but not dopamine.[77] This reduction in activation of the HPA (Hypothalamus-Pituitary-Adrenal) axis seems to extend to exerise, where there is also noted attentuations in cortisol.[69] In rats subject to the same restraint mentioned previously (a research model for Anxiety and Stress Relief), it was found that stress was able to increase tumor growth in rats already harboring tumors; 100-200mg/kg oral Schisandra fruit was able to normalize the immune system biomarkers and oxidation in test rats and reduced the amount of hepatic metastatic nodules.[78] This anti-stress effect has been somewhat replicated in a human study using Schisandra which noted that cognition, accuracy and attention was increased during periods of study by stressed persons using the supplement relative to placebo, but this study was confounded by Siberian Ginseng and Rhodiola Rosea which also share an adaptogenic property.
Without a prior stress, administration of Schisandra at 25-100mg/kg demonstrated an anxiolytic effect and promoted sedation and sleepfulness in rats.
• A study delineating how Schisandra affects the liver practically found that both the anti-oxidative protection (mediated via glutathione induction) and anxiolytic effects of reducing corticosterone were crucial (as psychological stress may adversely affect liver function[89]).[85] Furthermore, Schisandra offers a protective effect on hepatic (liver) tumor cells that are responsive to stress.[78] On the anti-oxidant side of things, induction of glutathione (S-transferase and reductase) and buffering anti-oxidant status prior to chemical insult has been demonstrated to protect against aflatoxin,[90] cadmium,[90] Hepatitis C,[91] and carbon tetrachloride.[92] It is said to confer a protective effect that is not specific for a toxin, but instead general.
• In regards to liver enzymes; Schisandra lignans can reduce a stress-induced increase of ALT from 96.7±6.3IU/L to 29.70-34.76IU/L, with 100mg/kg being more effective than 200mg/kg; the control group in this study had ALT levels at 17.5 ± 4.7IU/L.[85] These benefits have been noted in humans with 260mg Schisandra extract plus 10mg Sesamin daily, and alongside the reductions in liver enzymes (ALT, AST) the increase in anti-oxidant enzymes (glutathione, reductase) as well as a reduction in fatty liver and inflammatory markers was seen; no significant influences were noted on bilirubin.[93] A study on blood flow in humans using half the dose of the previous study found increased blood circulation with no influence on liver enzymes; these humans were healthy, so either the dose or prior disease state may account for the discrepancy.[40]
• It has been demonstrated that Sheng Mai San results in better bioavailability of Schisandrin (a lignan used as biomarker) than does a basic aqueous extract of Schisandra fruit delivering the same about of Schisandrin.[101] Whereas isolated Shisandrin at 5mg/kg delivered an AUC of 31766.4+/-7551.1ug/mL, the AUC from Schisandra was 70209.1+/-29155.0ug/mL and from the Sheng-Mai-San concoction 116697.4+/-35816.4ug/mL.[101] This is a 121% enhancement of average AUC using the whole plant, and a 267% enhancement of average AUC using the three herbs.

Dose: 1.5-9 (6-9g as tonic, 1.5-3g for chronic cough)

Ying Su Ke – Opium poppy seed capsule – Papaver somniferum

Nature: sour, astringent, slightly toxic, neutral

Enters: Lung, Large Intestine, Kidney

Actions: Astringes Lung Qi; astringes the large intestine; relieves pain; stabilizes the lower Jiao.

• Lung Qi or Yin deficiency: chronic cough.
• Spleen Yin, Qi, or Yang deficiency: chronic diarrhea or dysentery.
• Pain: chest, abdomen, tendons, bones, epigastrium (temporary use).
• Instability of the lower Jiao: polyuria, spermatorrhea, vaginal discharge.
• Use raw or vinegar-fried to stop diarrhea and pain.
• Use honey-fried to benefit the Lungs and stop coughing.
• This herb cannot be legally prescribed in the United States.

Dose: 1.5-6g

Of the many narcotic constituents of the opium poppy, perhaps the best known are morphine and codeine. Morphine is a strong analgesic, hypnotic, strong and selective respiratory depressant (may cause respiratory arrest), antitussive, causes peripheral vasodilation and histamine release, very low doses cause constipation by various means. Morphine is the analgesic standard against which all other analgesics are judged. In all respects, codeine is much weaker. It has about one-fourth the analgesic strength of morphine and is a weaker anti-tussive, but it is more commonly used because it has fewer side effects. All narcotic poppy derivatives have significant abuse potential.