Nature: sweet, slightly bitter, slightly warm
Enters: Spleen, Lung (some say also Kidney and Heart)
Actions: Powerfully tonifies the source Qi; tonifies Lung Qi; tonifies spleen and stomach Qi; generates body fluids, eases thirst; benefits heart Qi; calms the Shen; slightly nourishes Yin; improves wisdom; the red form (steamed) tonifies Yang.
• Qi collapse (as after severe vomiting, diarrhea, bleeding): cold sweats, shallow breathing, shortness of breath, cold limbs, weak and feeble pulse.
• Ren shen can be used alone after severe blood loss.
• Spleen Qi deficiency: fatigue, poor appetite, distended epigastrium, chest, or abdomen, vomiting, chronic diarrhea, prolapse of stomach, uterus, or rectum.
• Lung Qi deficiency: shortness of breath, spontaneous sweating, weak pulse, labored breathing, wheezing (usually also a concurrent failure of the kidneys to grasp the Qi).
• Body fluid injury: thirst, wasting and thirsting disorder, injury of body fluids by high fever and profuse sweats.
• Heart Qi/blood deficiency: palpitations, anxiety, insomnia, forgetfulness, restlessness, lots of dreams.
• Adaptogenic: long-term use makes one better able to deal with stressors (temperature changes, fatigue, infection, etc.).
• Has both stimulatory and sedative effects on the CNS.
• Accelerates transmission of nerve impulses, shortens latency period of nerve reflexes.
• Can improve myocardial utilization of nutrients and cardiac function.
• Increases synthesis of proteins and nucleic acids.
• Diabetes: may lower blood sugar and glucosuria, seems to act synergistically with insulin.
• Cultivated forms of ginseng are called Yuan shen.
• Ginseng cured in rock candy, Bai shen/Tang shen is used for Qi and Yin deficiency patterns, especially for the spleen/stomach.
• The small inexpensive rootlets are called Shen xu.
• Fresh-dried ginseng, Sheng shai shen can nourish Yin, and is similar to Xi yang shen (American Ginseng).
• When cured by steam, ginseng turns red – Hong shen – and is warmer, for Qi and Yang deficiency (can rescue devastated Yang).
• Most Korean ginseng is stronger than Chinese and is usually the red form.
• The white form is generally cooler than red.
• Quality is difficult to determine. One measure is that tap root and all lateral rootlets are intact and unbroken, though others dispute the significance of this factor. Another measure is the straightness of the root (where straighter is better). Size and age are the most general indicators of potency. Wild is considered better than cultivated.
• Because of its expense, the herb is often decocted separately in small amounts of water in a double boiler.
• The antidote for ginseng overdose (with symptoms such as headache, insomnia, palpitations, and a rise in blood pressure) is mung bean soup.
Jin: Use 30-50g alone (especially the red form) to stop bleeding from (spleen) deficiency.
PFGC: Can be used for fevers: where the patient’s righteous Qi is constitutionally weak and pathogens are trapped inside.
• Can be used for any deficiency – even with heat or bleeding.
• With Sheng ma, it can drain Lung fire.
• With Fu ling, it can drain kidney fire.
• With Mai men dong, it can boost the pulse.
• With Huang qi and Gan cao, it can lower fever.
• Useful for deficiency pain.
• The imperial herb for slight Yin deficiency with severe Yang deficiency leading to steaming sensations due to the Yin not being able to contain the vital fire.
• Can nourish Yin and produce blood.
• (In the proper context:) it boosts earth to generate metal, brightens the eyes, opens the heart, invigorates mental clarity, nourishes the Jing, supplements the Shen, controls palpitations, resolves thirst, dispels restlessness, opens the channels, boosts the pulse, breaks up accumulations, eliminates phlegm, cures all conditions involving Qi deficiency and blood injury.
• Not for Yin deficiency fire causing asthma and coughing.
HF: Patients with Gu Zheng (Gu parasites) tend to react negatively to Ren shen.
Hsu: Acts synergistically with insulin to lower blood sugar; antidiuretic; lowers blood cholesterol; increases protein synthesis; stimulates sex hormones; cardiotonic.
CHA: (Al Stone, 9-26-2000)
I. Yuan Shen (“Garden Ginseng,” meaning cultivated ginseng)
A. Hong Shen (“Red Root”) Its color is brown and red. It is slightly transparent. After cleaning, it is steamed two to three hours, then oven dried or sun dried. This is the most common variety of Yuan shen. Its smell is very pleasant, with a slight bitter taste.
B. Bian Tao Shen (“Edge Long Root”) Similar to red ginseng in color and quality. It is longer that red ginseng with a greater diameter. Its branch, too is longer and wider. This suggests a better quality medicine than red ginseng. C. Tang Shen (“Sugar Root”) First the Yuan shen is placed into boiling water for 3 to 7 minutes, then placed into cold water right away to soak for about 10 minutes, then sun dried. Liu huang (sulfur) is burnt beneath the ginseng to smoke it. The essence of the Liu huang passes into the ginseng via the smoke. This may be a preservative for the ginseng to keep it free of worms. They use a special needle to puncture tiny holes in the root. Then they place the ginseng into highly concentrated sugar water for more than 24 hours. Then the ginseng is placed under direct sunlight to dry it out. Then they beat the ginseng with a wet towel to soften, and repeat the process from the punching of the holes. Once it has been in the sugar water again for 24 hours it is rinsed off and sun- or oven-dried. The color becomes a lighter yellow/white. The smell is pleasant. The taste is sweet and slightly bitter.
D. Bai Ren Shen (“White Man Root”) Quality and shape is a kind of like sugar shen. Most of the time it has a good shape (straight) and is very white. It is longer than red ginseng. The ginseng’s beard (the long hairy roots at the end of the branches) is short, but very brittle.
E. Sheng Shai Shen (“Raw Sun-dried Root”) This kind of ginseng is washed until clean and then partially dried by placing in the sun for one day (one full day of very clear, brilliant sunshine). The next day, it is smoked with Liu huang, possibly as a preservative. Then the sun-drying process is continued until completely dried. The color is mostly yellow, a little brown. It is crisp and lighter now. The smell is pleasant. The taste is bitter.
F. Bai Gan Shen (“White Dry Root”) The superficial skin of the root is scratched off. The color is light yellow or white. It is called “white” because it has been made lighter by the scraping of the skin. Quality and shape are similar to Sheng shai shen. G. Qia Pi Shen (“Strangled Skin Root”) The method of preparation is similar to Tang shen: Put ginseng into boiling water for 3 min, then remove until cold, then replace into the boiling water. Repeat until the it has been bathed three times. At this point, root will be 30% done. Then, put the it into boiling water for 20 minutes. Remove it, let it cool, and punch tiny holes in it as with Tang shen. Then place it into slightly sweetened sugar water (nowhere near as concentrated as for Tang shen). Then remove and oven dry. This will cause the skin to separate from the meat. Then use a bamboo knife to make small indentations into the root, very superficial. The smell if pleasant. The taste is slightly sweet and slightly bitter as typical ginseng.
H. Da Li Shen (“Great Force Root”) Take fresh raw ginseng for several seconds and remove. [sic] Then dry very well beneath the sun (as many days as necessary until fully dry). This is the most natural form of ginseng. This kind of ginseng is not often exported because it has a short shelf life. It is the strongest and least prepared. It has a slightly yellow color and is slightly transparent. The beard and branches are cut off to leave only the best part of the ginseng, however the head is left on for consumers to better assess the quality of the herb. This root is hard and crisp. Smell is pleasant, taste is bitter.
II. Ye Shan Shen (“Wild Mountain Grown Root”)
The shape looks like garden ginseng. The body of the root is wider and shorter. Usually there are two major branches to the body, which makes the root look like a body with two legs. In the head you will find numerous concentric wrinkles. The legs tend to be curved, not straight like garden ginseng. The root beard (small rootlets) is much longer than that of garden ginseng – one or two times the length of the “legs” of the root. The beardy roots also have pearly spots on them. This is the biggest difference between wild and cultivated ginseng – them pearly whites. Wild ginseng’s color (of the whole body) is a light yellow. The skin of the root is very soft. Its natural smell (before cooking) is stronger than garden ginseng. It is sweet, with a light bitter quality also. The preparation procedures are different. There are three methods of preparation (see above for details): 1. Sheng shai shen 2. Tang shen 3. Qia pi shen
Wild Ginseng of the best quality is very large and juicy, full of liquid. Wrinkles that are small and compact are better than wide and thick wrinkles. Longer head is better than a short one. The more pearls on the beard roots the better.
III. Korean Ginseng [Gao Li Shen or Chao Xian Shen]: Korean ginseng, of course, grows in Korea. It, too, comes in both wild and garden varieties. The more northern, the better, though it is grown in the South as well.
Bei Zhi Shen (“Fork in the Road Straight Root”). Probably named because the herb is a little bigger and the legs resemble a “Y” in the road. These roots have a stronger tonification function.
Production: There is Korean red ginseng and Korean white ginseng. Red is better, stronger than white. Preparation is the same as Chinese ginseng.
SD: Ginseng (Panax ginseng) has been a prominent herb in Chinese medicine for at least twenty centuries. Due to scarcity of the herb at various times, its use has been restricted and substitute herbs have replaced it in certain prescriptions. For example, in China, most prescriptions that would otherwise contain ginseng are made with the less-expensive herb codonopsis.
Classically, ginseng is used to restore vital energy (qi) and to generate fluids (especially for the stomach). A major use was for the recovery from debilitating feverish diseases which parched the body fluids and drained energy. It was also relied upon as a sedative and longevity tonic. Through extensive experience with its use, the number of indications for it increased. The diversity of ginseng actions that were claimed was the basis for its original description as a panacea by Western visitors to China centuries ago. The official genus name, Panax, comes from the word panacea. When Western-style research was initiated in the Orient on a large scale following World War II, ginseng became the primary subject. Its chemical constituents were analyzed, and numerous physiologic actions were determined. These include reduction of stress reaction, normalization of blood pressure and blood sugar levels, increase in endurance, improved mental functions, resistance to disease (and to chemicals and radiation), longer life span, and anti-tumor activities.
Much of the ginseng research during the past few years has done little more than reconfirm previous findings about ginseng’s ability to normalize body functions. These general findings are displayed in Appendix 1. Different
dosages, methods of preparation, and testing situations are tried out in some of the recent studies. Sometimes the results appear contradictory, but as the information accumulates, many of the results can be reasonably explained. The current thrust of research is in three areas: immune system actions, cardiovascular effects, and hormonal effects.
IMMUNE SYSTEM STUDIES
At the Institute of Traditional Chinese Medicine in Jilin Province (where ginseng is grown), researchers in the pharmacology department evaluated the effects of ginseng on immune responses. The immune responses of mice were tested with different dosages of ginseng extracts obtained either from the leaf or the root of ginseng. Significant changes in the response of the reticuloendothelial (RES) system were found,especially with moderate doses of the root extracts. Larger doses did not improve the response. RES cells are the immune system components that devour foreign organisms without leaving their original sites in the liver, spleen, and other tissues of the body. When tumors were implanted in mice, the response of the immune system was notably improved by the ginseng extracts and this caused a reduction of tumor weight by 1/3 to Â½. Levels of antibodies in the blood were also significantly increased when the mice, injected with foreign blood cells, had received ginseng pre-treatment. In these experiments, ginseng was administered daily for five to ten days prior to testing the immune system responses. In human patients undergoing cancer therapies with radiation or chemical agents, it was shown that the anti-cancer effects of these therapies were increased. Ginseng administration accelerated recovery of the immune system and the function of the bone marrow (producing red blood cells) in these patients. As a result of these investigations, ginseng extracts are now used to treat patients with chronic hepatitis (who often suffer further depression of immunity due to steroid treatment) and those who have undergone cancer therapies.
A distant relative of ginseng, eleuthero ginseng (Eleutherococcus senticosus), is used in Chinese hospitals to treat cancer patients undergoing chemotherapy. It protects the immune system and is used in the Soviet Union as a preventive for colds and flu.
THE HORMONAL SYSTEM
It was established by modern research in the 1970’s that ginseng relieves stress on the adrenal glands. It has recently been proven that both ginseng and deer antler, a Chinese health tonic often combined with ginseng, affect luteinizing hormone (LH). In laboratory experiments at the Department of Physiology at Jianxi Medical College, animals were given ginsenosides from ginseng and the active fraction from deer antler. Luteinizing hormone secretion increased dramatically, about ten fold. This hormone influences the menstrual cycle in women and it stimulates testosterone secretion in men. Ginseng and antler extracts were also shown to increase testosterone secretion in males; this can help overcome impotence and will have an influence on muscular development. In the laboratory experiments, a 45″“ 90% increase in testosterone levels was found. Ginseng and deer antler have been used for centuries in Chinese remedies for menstrual disorders and for male impotence; this research confirms their efficacy. Luteinizing hormone is produced by the pituitary gland, so it is proposed that ginseng and deer antler ingredients do not have a direct hormonal action but instead influence the production of hormones by the body. In Italian studies of ginseng activity on the glands and hormone secretions in mice, the findings suggested that ginseng has a strong influence on the hypothalamus and pituitary glands, and that the adrenal effects of ginseng that are often noted were linked to these glands. Ginseng extracts of varying strength were given to normal rats and to rats who had their adrenal cortex removed. Based on the biochemical and histological evaluation of their spleen, liver, thymus, and other organs, it was suggested that ginseng induced the pituitary to release ACTH (a steroid hormone also produced by the adrenal cortex), which influenced the functions of the organs. It is generally agreed by researchers today that ginseng exerts its effects on what is called the “pituitary, hypothalamus, adrenal axis.” The term indicates the coordinated functions of these three glands in regulating metabolism, response, and homeostasis. Furthermore, this set of interacting glands may have been indirectly recognized for centuries by the Chinese as a functional unit influencing stress, aging, sexual function, and overall vitality. In the translation of Chinese medical terminology to Western terminology, this functional unit has been assigned to the “kidney.” Hence, one hears Chinese medical specialists frequently speaking of kidney functions we never otherwise associate with the kidney. In fact, the functional unit appears to rely heavily on the pituitary, hypothalamus, adrenal axis. As a result of the hormone research, we have a clearer picture of the ancient science of Oriental medicine. The hormonal effects are usually noted with higher dosages of ginseng. In one of the Swiss studies of athletes using relatively low ginseng dosage (equal to 1.0 grams of ginseng per day), hormone levels were monitored and no significant change was observed. Studies demonstrating a strong hormonal effect used the equivalent of about 3.0 grams per day of ginseng. During a double-blind study of the effects of ginseng conducted by the Institute for Traditional Medicine in the U.S., it was noted that large doses of ginseng (3.0″“4.5 grams per day) appeared to influence the menstrual cycle of women. Reports of altered cycle length or change in bleeding pattern during menstruation were made by 29% of the women receiving ginseng daily for three weeks. For the purpose of regulating menstruation, ginseng is usually combined with tang-kuei and other Chinese herbs, and not used alone.
Until recently, Chinese dogma held that ginseng was to be reserved for those who were ill and for those who are showing the effects of aging. Korean and Japanese experience, however, suggests that ginseng can be taken everyday as a preventive health tonic. Now, research shows clearly that one need not be ill to use ginseng: even the healthiest among us may have cause to use it. Athletes, whether beginning joggers or Olympic contenders, agree that ginseng helps them overcome the strain and drain of exercise. A recent Swiss study conducted by Dr. Anton Kirchdorfer shows how ginseng helps. Thirty athletes were given exercise tests on a programmed exercycle to assure a specific level of muscle work. The heart rate and lactate concentration in the blood was measured before, immediately after, and for several minutes following the exercise. Strong exertion for eight minutes raised the athletes heart rate from an average value of about 70 to 155. During recuperation, their heart rate slowly returned to normal over a period of about 20 minutes; their heart rates fell below 100 after 4″“5 minutes. The athletes were then given ginseng daily for 9 weeks. The material used was a standardized extract of active constituents called “ginsenosides.” The tests were conducted again, using the same amount of exercise. Their pulse rates this time increased to only 140, and during recuperation their heart rates fell below 100 within just 3 minutes, and were back to normal in 5 minutes. Lactate (the by-product of muscular oxygen utilization that causes pain following exercise) was measured during the same tests. Before using ginseng, the lactate levels of the athletes increased from 2.0 before exercise to 10.5 afterwards, without returning to normal levels even after 20 minutes. Following 9 weeks of ginseng administration, lactic acid levels only reached 6.2 at their highest point, and decreased to normal in about twenty minutes. The lower heart rate and quicker return to normal suggests improved oxygen utilization and faster clearance of lactate. Additional measurements taken during this same research program demonstrated that reaction time was improved and pulmonary function was greatly enhanced. The effects of ginseng given for 9 weeks persisted for about three weeks after ginseng use was ceased. This persistence of herbal effects following long-term administration has been shown with other herb products. Traditionally, herbalists recommend a short break of one to two weeks when patients are using herbs for an extended period of time. This may be one way of getting the maximum advantage of the herbs used. The findings in this Swiss research are consistent with a previous double-blind study using the same ginseng extracts with 120 members of sports clubs. In that study, conducted by I. Forgo in Switzerland, significant improvements in pulmonary function, reaction time, and overall vitality (as self-evaluated) were found. These effects were especially noted in the 40″“60 age group, less so in the 30″“40 age group. The study lasted 12 weeks. The results obtained with athletes confirm laboratory animal studies that have been conducted in the past. Animals forced to perform vigorous exercise utilized less of their stored glycogen, fatigued less quickly, and generally performed better if they were first administered ginseng. Ginseng has been shown to increase the time which animals could keep up vigorous exercise by as much as 100%. Athletic-oriented research was conducted in China with tien-chi ginseng. Tien-chi ginseng is a close relative to ordinary ginseng, but it grows in a different climate, produces a harder root, and has somewhat different active constituents. The following is a summary of findings: 1. Under usual circumstances, pulse rates of weight lifters the morning after a day of intensive weight lifting did not return to normal levels. If they took tien-chi ginseng, on the other hand, their morning pulse did return to normal. 2. The pulse rate of swimmers following a medium-load training session was about 170, and after 2″“3 minutes rest, it was reduced to about 120. But if tien-chi ginseng was taken, the pulse right after swimming only reached about 125, and returned to normal rates (about 70) after 2″“3 minutes. 3. Differences between those not taking tien-chi ginseng and those taking tien-chi ginseng increased as use of the ginseng was continued over a longer period of time. The experiments were continued for 7 weeks (compared to 9 and 12 weeks for the Swiss studies). The study results with Panax ginseng and tien-chi ginseng are clearly similar to each other; further, they are similar to those obtained by Soviet researchers with eleuthero ginseng. Eleuthero ginseng is a distant relative of these plants; it is a woody shrub, with significantly different chemical constituents, but is used in much the same way as Panax ginseng. Soviet athletes regularly use eleuthero ginseng extract as a health tonic. With regard to oxygen consumption, these three types of ginseng have all been successfully tested in the treatment of oxygen deficit among Chinese workers transferred to the high plateau of Tibet (average altitude: 14,000 feet). This application follows up laboratory animal studies measuring response and survival rate of animals subjected to very low pressure atmosphere. Thus, it does not seem to be a critical concern as to which kind of ginseng is used for this purpose. Some athletes prefer to use several types of ginseng at once. Tien-chi ginseng has the advantage of resolving bruises and other injuries that often occur during sports activities, so it may be especially useful to those just starting an exercise program and those involved in more vigorous sports for that reason. It is gratifying for researchers to see human trials yielding results similar to those obtained during laboratory animal tests; this suggests that the models used in the laboratory were properly chosen.
THE ACTIVE CONSTITUENTS OF GINSENG
One problem with earlier ginseng research is that each scientist might utilize a different quality of ginseng and there may be no data indicating the content of the material that was used. Today, there are established chemical assays to assure that ginseng used in studies is of good quality. In fact, for the purpose of scientific precision, most researchers are using standardized ginseng extracts (the amount of selected active ingredients are standardized). Nearly all ginseng researchers claim that ginseng’s actions are attributable to the combined effect of its glycoside components called ginsenosides (they were previously called panaxosides). These components have a structure similar to steroid hormones, but as indicated by research cited above, they do not have a direct hormonal action; rather, they influence the production of hormones. Eleutherosides, the glycoside components found in eleuthero ginseng, generally do not have a steroid structure. There are at least ten ginsenosides present in Panax ginseng and tien-chi ginseng in quantities that can have a notable physiologic effect. Eleuthero ginseng contains at least seven eleutherosides. If the ginsenosides are isolated individually and tested in laboratory animals, it is found that each has a somewhat different, and sometimes opposite effect. The balancing action of ginseng””for example, lowering blood pressure in those with hypertension and raising blood pressure in those with hypotension””is thought to be due to the complex interaction of different glycoside effects. Thus, to get the desired balancing action of ginseng, it is necessary to utilize the complete set of glycosides. Depending upon the species of ginseng and other factors, its content of glycosides ranges from about 4% to 12% (tien-chi ginseng has the highest levels). White ginseng has the lowest levels of ginsenosides because, during the drying process, enzymes in the ginseng roots break down these active ingredients. Red ginseng is prepared by a steaming process that prevents this breakdown of constituents. Ginsenoside content, both total amount and distribution amongst the different types of ginsenoside, is used as a measure of ginseng quality. Chinese researchers working with flowers of eleuthero ginseng at the Department of Pharmacology, Shanghai College of Traditional Chinese Medicine, demonstrated that the oil fraction had a high activity in reducing stress. Laboratory animals exposed to low oxygen environment or high levels of physical activity performed much better if they received eleuthero flower oil than if they did not. Thus, the oil components, which are different than the glycosides, may be of importance. All parts of the ginseng plant contain a small amount of oils. Furthermore, polysaccharides have been isolated from ginseng and eleuthero ginseng. These components are valuable in enhancing immune system functions. Polysaccharides of similar nature found in medicinal mushrooms such as ganoderma and shiitake, and in Chinese herbs with actions similar to ginseng, such as astragalus, have all been shown to boost weakened immune responses. It is important to note that the same polysaccharides that enhance immune responses also tone down aberrant immune responses associated with autoimmune diseases. Interestingly, a plant unrelated to ginseng, Gynostemma pentaphyllum, was recently shown to contain several ginsenosides. This plant has become an important therapeutic agent in China during the 1990’s, being used to help improve immune system functions in cancer patients. The clinical benefits of this herb suggests that the ginsenosides are the most important of the immune-enhancing agents in ginseng.
From the information presented above, it should be evident that ginseng is to be taken for a period of time before one expects to see substantial results. Some people experience immediate effects, but in general, the use of a ginseng product should continue for at least one week to one month before one looks for notable changes in health and performance. A two to three month period of use may be ideal. Nearly everyone can use ginseng, but experienced Chinese herbalists recommend that persons with the following conditions do not use ginseng except under the advice of a professional: persons with extremely high blood pressure, those who tend to get spontaneous nose bleeds, women with excessive menstrual bleeding, and persons who experience a hot and dry feeling frequently. Ginseng is one of the few Oriental herbs that can be used by itself with good results. However, outside of Korea, where it is frequently used as a single herb remedy, ginseng is most often used in combination with other herbs.
Effects of Ginseng from Earlier Research Studies
Blood Pressure: hypertension patients experience a reduction of blood pressure using low to moderate doses of ginseng; hypotensive patients experience an increase of blood pressure using moderate to large doses of ginseng.
Blood Sugar: diabetic patients experience some lowering of blood sugar with prolonged use; at least one month.
Central Nervous System: calming action in cases of insomnia in low dosage, stimulant action in cases of lethargy, poor digestion, chill, and mental dullness in larger doses.
Stress: reduces stress reaction, including depletion of vitamin C, glycogen, and protein, and preserves life against many physical (e.g., temperature, low oxygen, radiation), chemical (e.g., liver toxins), and biological (e.g., viral) stresses.
Active Constituents of Ginseng
Panaxosides and Eleutherosides: these are glycosides that have been intensively studied. They seem to have many of the central nervous system and cardiovascular effects.
Polysaccharides: these are highly branched chains of sugar molecules; they appear to have a normalizing effect on immune system functions.
Phenolic Compounds, other complex alcohols, and organic acids: these have been recently studied; it is suggested that they contribute an anti-aging effect and reduce fatigue.
Fixed and Volatile Oils: these have an anti-stress effect and are sedative in nature.
Vitamin and Mineral Components: ginseng contains B vitamins and a number of minerals; however, it is unlikely that the amounts contained in the average daily dose of ginseng have much health impact. Nonetheless, ginseng can be classified as a nutritious food. Some authorities believe that ginseng was originally eaten raw or in soups as a food which provided energy and quenched thirst.
Dose: 1-9g (or more for shock) For Qi collapse, cook 30-60g for one hour and drink
Ren Shen Lu: the neck/head of root
• Mild emetic (rare use): used to induce vomiting to eliminate phlegm for epilepsy.
• Also for food stagnation and phlegm with deficiency.
Ren Shen Ye: the leaf
• Bitter, slightly sweet, cold.
• Clears summer-heat; generates body fluids.
• Treats deficiency heat/fire.
• Summer-heat with thirst.
• Injury to fluids from febrile disease.
• Lung heat: hoarseness.
• Stomach Yin deficiency fire: toothache.