Nature: bitter, sour, neutral
Enters: Liver, Kidney
Actions: Promotes blood circulation, dispels blood stasis; tonifies the liver and kidneys; strengthens the sinews and bones, benefit the joints; promotes urination; conducts blood, fire/heat/Yang, and herbs downward; clears damp-heat in the lower Jiao; unblocks the menses.
• Blood stasis: irregular menstruation, dysmenorrhea, amenorrhea, abdominal pain after childbirth, traumatic injury, lochioschesis.
• Liver and kidney deficiency: weak, sore lower back, and lower limbs (knees).
• Liver Yang rising, upper body bleeding, or flare-up of fire: hematemesis, epistaxis, toothache, mouth sores, headache, dizziness, bleeding gums, blurred vision.
• Lower Jiao damp-heat: knee pain, lower back damp Bi syndrome, painful urinary dysfunction, vaginal discharge, stones, hematuria.
• Lower Jiao blood stasis (damp-heat): urethral pain, hematuria.
• In its raw form, it is better at promoting blood circulation.
• When it is cooked, it is more tonic. In its raw form it is more blood-moving.
• Lowers blood pressure – sometimes used in very high doses for this purpose.
Hsu: Analgesic, antispasmodic (GI), diuretic, hypotensive (temporary vasodilation), anti-allergic action